WJEC Educas Component 2 Section B: The American Frugal Housewife

This analysis of the second extract ‘The American Frugal Housewife’ from the WJEC Educas sample assessment material (SAM).  This builds on a series of posts that begin with my quest, then move onto analyse AQA 1 and AQA 2 extracts and then Edexcel 1 and Edexcel 2.  I have already analysed the first extract from the Edexcel SAMs.

I’ve accepted that I’m not going to be able to fully analyse the OCR extracts in time for my research presentation at the NATE Conference, Saturday 24th June 2017, 09.15 Research slot but I will have some initial findings.

This extract has a slightly higher number of Tier Two words than the AQA extracts (60+76) but Edexcel still has the highest overall (156 + 73).  Magazine features more highly as a context again, like the other WJEC extract, due to the lifestyle nature of the article.

82 Tier Two words
aged art avarice; baked beef
charity coals collected Cotton creditors
deserves despised dinner doubtful earning
economical economy employed employment ensure
etc expenditure experience feeling fragments
frugal gathering generally generous housekeeping
Housewife however impulse injury instinct
knit knitting lard laying materials
member merely mince minced nor
obeys odd opportunity otherwise overlooked
owes per permanent persons power
praise purchased readiness recommend saving
savoury selfish simply skins stew
stockings sufficient sundries supper tending
thoughtlessly thrown Total trifling ungenerous
vegetables virtue wants wasted woollen
woven yarn      

 

No glossary

 

There was no glossary again for this extract, like the first WJEC one, not even for ‘frugal’ which I feel is central to the meaning and a quite unusual word (frequency of 79).

 

Contexts

 

Despite the nature of the article the largest context is still academic (21/82).  Newspaper as a context is low but magazine higher.  Fiction continues to feature as an important context for Tier Two words in general and for the least frequently occurring too (19/82 and 10/30) with magazine having about the same numbers.

 

Other knowledge/Tier 3

 

Like the first WJEC text units of measurement and currency feature: 1b, cents and dollars. I would have thought most students would assume ‘soda’ meant fizzy drinks but that probably wouldn’t be crucial.  Although ‘economy’ as a Tier Two word features quite frequently in the corpus it probably doesn’t feature as meaning being thrifty or reducing expenditure in a budget predominantly.

 

Range of Tier Two words across all six texts

 

A small body of repeated Tier Two words is emerging:

28 words have now appeared in two texts (assignment(s), attention, crumpled, dinner, during, earliest, favour(ed), housekeeping, however, information, intelligence, intend(ed), latest, manage(d), memories, merely, nor, official, opportunity, plain, powers, received, recommend, text, thrown, whether, worship, worth).  Only 3 words appear in three texts (increasingly, typical, interview).

This leaves 515 Tier Two words to know across the six texts. (549-28-3-3) of which 192 have frequency scores below 1000.  Quite a large body of words required to comprehend this relatively small group of extracts.

I expected a larger number of repeated words to emerge to allow some targeted vocabulary instruction but 515 seems almost too large to work with.

OCR

I’ve done some preliminary work on the OCR extracts to present on Saturday and will analyse fully next week.

Tier 2 Words – alphabetical order

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context (per mill)
aged Adjective 4584 Newspaper
art Noun 14987 Magazine
avarice noun 49 Fiction
baked Noun 644 Fiction
beef Noun 1481 Magazine
charity Noun 3627 Newspaper
coals Noun 248 Coals
collected verb 3442 Academic
Cotton Noun 2348 Magazine
creditors Noun 1106 Academic
deserves Verb 883 Magazine then newspaper
despised Verb 399 Fiction
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
doubtful adjective 1202 Academic
earning verb 1133 Newspaper then spoken
economical Adjective 489 Magazine
economy Noun 10174 Non-academic
employed verb 5001 Academic
Employment Noun 10562 Academic
ensure Verb 10137 Misc
etc Adverb 4393 Misc
expenditure noun 5408 Misc
experience Noun 20924 Academic
feeling noun 12308 Fiction
fragments noun 1317 Academic
frugal Adjective 79 Magazine then fiction
gathering verb 1811 Fiction
generally Adverb 11352 Academic
generous adjective 2234 Magazine
housekeeping Noun 341 Magazine
Housewife Noun 621 Non-academic
however Adverb 58967 Academic
impulse Noun 713 Fiction
injury Noun 4556 Academic
instinct noun 1057 Fiction
knit verb 1081 Magazine (by far)
knitting Verb 1611 Magazine
lard noun 84 Magazine
laying Verb 1322 Fiction (just)
materials Noun 6691 Non-academic
member Noun 17107 Misc
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
mince noun 295 Spoken
minced Verb 88 Magazine
nor Conjunction 11879 Academic
obeys Verb 48 Non-academic
odd Adjective 4255 Fiction
opportunity Noun 10026 misc
otherwise Adverb 8558 Academic
overlooked Verb 797 Academic
owes verb 631 Academic and newspaper
per Preposition 52333 Non-academic
permanent Adjective 4410 Non-academic
persons Noun 3943 Academic
power noun 31134 Academic
praise noun 1563 Misc
purchased verb 1664 Magazine
readiness Noun 583 Non-academic
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
saving Verb 2310 misc
savoury Adjective 164 Magazine
selfish Adjective 648 Fiction
simply adverb 17099 Academic
skins Noun 623 Magazine
stew Noun 325 Fiction
stockings Noun 453 Fiction
sufficient Adjective 5827 Academic
sundries noun 16 Misc
supper Noun 1390 Fiction
tending Verb 423 Non-academic
thoughtlessly Adverb 42 Fiction
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
Total Noun 17097 Misc
trifling Adjective 90 Academic
ungenerous Adjective 36 Fiction
vegetables noun 1750 Magazine
virtue noun 1817 Academic
wants Noun 8613 Spoken
wasted adjective 1311 Fiction
woollen Noun 488 Fiction
woven Adjective 587 Magazine
yarn noun 866 Magazine

 

Tier Two words – BNC Frequency

 

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context (per mill)
however Adverb 58967 Academic
per Preposition 52333 Non-academic
power noun 31134 Academic
experience Noun 20924 Academic
member Noun 17107 Misc
simply adverb 17099 Academic
Total Noun 17097 Misc
art Noun 14987 Magazine
feeling noun 12308 Fiction
nor Conjunction 11879 Academic
generally Adverb 11352 Academic
Employment Noun 10562 Academic
economy Noun 10174 Non-academic
ensure Verb 10137 Misc
opportunity Noun 10026 misc
wants Noun 8613 Spoken
otherwise Adverb 8558 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
materials Noun 6691 Non-academic
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
sufficient Adjective 5827 Academic
expenditure noun 5408 Misc
employed verb 5001 Academic
aged Adjective 4584 Newspaper
injury Noun 4556 Academic
permanent Adjective 4410 Non-academic
etc Adverb 4393 Misc
odd Adjective 4255 Fiction
persons Noun 3943 Academic
charity Noun 3627 Newspaper
collected verb 3442 Academic
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
Cotton Noun 2348 Magazine
saving Verb 2310 misc
generous adjective 2234 Magazine
virtue noun 1817 Academic
gathering verb 1811 Fiction
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
vegetables noun 1750 Magazine
purchased verb 1664 Magazine
knitting Verb 1611 Magazine
praise noun 1563 Misc
beef Noun 1481 Magazine
supper Noun 1390 Fiction
laying Verb 1322 Fiction (just)
fragments noun 1317 Academic
wasted adjective 1311 Fiction
doubtful adjective 1202 Academic
earning verb 1133 Newspaper then spoken
creditors Noun 1106 Academic
knit verb 1081 Magazine (by far)
instinct noun 1057 Fiction
deserves Verb 883 Magazine then newspaper
yarn noun 866 Magazine
overlooked Verb 797 Academic
impulse Noun 713 Fiction
selfish Adjective 648 Fiction
baked Noun 644 Fiction
owes verb 631 Academic and newspaper
skins Noun 623 Magazine
Housewife Noun 621 Non-academic
woven Adjective 587 Magazine
readiness Noun 583 Non-academic
economical Adjective 489 Magazine
woollen Noun 488 Fiction
stockings Noun 453 Fiction
tending Verb 423 Non-academic
despised Verb 399 Fiction
housekeeping Noun 341 Magazine
stew Noun 325 Fiction
mince noun 295 Spoken
coals Noun 248  
savoury Adjective 164 Magazine
trifling Adjective 90 Academic
minced Verb 88 Magazine
lard noun 84 Magazine
frugal Adjective 79 Magazine then fiction
avarice noun 49 Fiction
obeys Verb 48 Non-academic
thoughtlessly Adverb 42 Fiction
ungenerous Adjective 36 Fiction
sundries noun 16 Misc

 

Notes: 30 words under 1000 frequency: 10 magazine, 10 fiction, 4 non-academic, 3 academic, 1 misc, 1 spoken, 1 missing

 

15 nouns , 7 adjectives, 7 verbs, 1 adverb

 

Tier 2 Words – Largest Contexts

 

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context (per mill)
however Adverb 58967 Academic
power noun 31134 Academic
experience Noun 20924 Academic
simply adverb 17099 Academic
nor Conjunction 11879 Academic
generally Adverb 11352 Academic
Employment Noun 10562 Academic
otherwise Adverb 8558 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
sufficient Adjective 5827 Academic
employed verb 5001 Academic
injury Noun 4556 Academic
persons Noun 3943 Academic
collected verb 3442 Academic
virtue noun 1817 Academic
fragments noun 1317 Academic
doubtful adjective 1202 Academic
creditors Noun 1106 Academic
overlooked Verb 797 Academic
trifling Adjective 90 Academic
owes verb 631 Academic and newspaper
coals Noun 248  
feeling noun 12308 Fiction
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
odd Adjective 4255 Fiction
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
gathering verb 1811 Fiction
supper Noun 1390 Fiction
wasted adjective 1311 Fiction
instinct noun 1057 Fiction
impulse Noun 713 Fiction
selfish Adjective 648 Fiction
baked Noun 644 Fiction
woollen Noun 488 Fiction
stockings Noun 453 Fiction
despised Verb 399 Fiction
stew Noun 325 Fiction
avarice noun 49 Fiction
thoughtlessly Adverb 42 Fiction
ungenerous Adjective 36 Fiction
laying Verb 1322 Fiction (just)
art Noun 14987 Magazine
Cotton Noun 2348 Magazine
generous adjective 2234 Magazine
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
vegetables noun 1750 Magazine
purchased verb 1664 Magazine
knitting Verb 1611 Magazine
beef Noun 1481 Magazine
yarn noun 866 Magazine
skins Noun 623 Magazine
woven Adjective 587 Magazine
economical Adjective 489 Magazine
housekeeping Noun 341 Magazine
savoury Adjective 164 Magazine
minced Verb 88 Magazine
lard noun 84 Magazine
knit verb 1081 Magazine (by far)
frugal Adjective 79 Magazine then fiction
deserves Verb 883 Magazine then newspaper
member Noun 17107 Misc
Total Noun 17097 Misc
ensure Verb 10137 Misc
opportunity Noun 10026 misc
expenditure noun 5408 Misc
etc Adverb 4393 Misc
saving Verb 2310 misc
praise noun 1563 Misc
sundries noun 16 Misc
aged Adjective 4584 Newspaper
charity Noun 3627 Newspaper
earning verb 1133 Newspaper then spoken
per Preposition 52333 Non-academic
economy Noun 10174 Non-academic
materials Noun 6691 Non-academic
permanent Adjective 4410 Non-academic
Housewife Noun 621 Non-academic
readiness Noun 583 Non-academic
tending Verb 423 Non-academic
obeys Verb 48 Non-academic
wants Noun 8613 Spoken
mince noun 295 Spoken

 

Notes: 21 Academic, 19 Fiction, 19 Magazine, 9 Misc, 8 non-academic, 3 newspaper, 2 spoken, 1 missing

 

Tier 2 words – word types

 

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context (per mill)
sufficient Adjective 5827 Academic
aged Adjective 4584 Newspaper
permanent Adjective 4410 Non-academic
odd Adjective 4255 Fiction
generous adjective 2234 Magazine
wasted adjective 1311 Fiction
doubtful adjective 1202 Academic
selfish Adjective 648 Fiction
woven Adjective 587 Magazine
economical Adjective 489 Magazine
savoury Adjective 164 Magazine
trifling Adjective 90 Academic
frugal Adjective 79 Magazine then fiction
ungenerous Adjective 36 Fiction
however Adverb 58967 Academic
simply adverb 17099 Academic
generally Adverb 11352 Academic
otherwise Adverb 8558 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
etc Adverb 4393 Misc
thoughtlessly Adverb 42 Fiction
nor Conjunction 11879 Academic
power noun 31134 Academic
experience Noun 20924 Academic
member Noun 17107 Misc
Total Noun 17097 Misc
art Noun 14987 Magazine
feeling noun 12308 Fiction
Employment Noun 10562 Academic
economy Noun 10174 Non-academic
opportunity Noun 10026 misc
wants Noun 8613 Spoken
materials Noun 6691 Non-academic
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
expenditure noun 5408 Misc
injury Noun 4556 Academic
persons Noun 3943 Academic
charity Noun 3627 Newspaper
Cotton Noun 2348 Magazine
virtue noun 1817 Academic
vegetables noun 1750 Magazine
praise noun 1563 Misc
beef Noun 1481 Magazine
supper Noun 1390 Fiction
fragments noun 1317 Academic
creditors Noun 1106 Academic
instinct noun 1057 Fiction
yarn noun 866 Magazine
impulse Noun 713 Fiction
baked Noun 644 Fiction
skins Noun 623 Magazine
Housewife Noun 621 Non-academic
readiness Noun 583 Non-academic
woollen Noun 488 Fiction
stockings Noun 453 Fiction
housekeeping Noun 341 Magazine
stew Noun 325 Fiction
mince noun 295 Spoken
coals Noun 248 Coals
lard noun 84 Magazine
avarice noun 49 Fiction
sundries noun 16 Misc
per Preposition 52333 Non-academic
ensure Verb 10137 Misc
employed verb 5001 Academic
collected verb 3442 Academic
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
saving Verb 2310 misc
gathering verb 1811 Fiction
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
purchased verb 1664 Magazine
knitting Verb 1611 Magazine
laying Verb 1322 Fiction (just)
earning verb 1133 Newspaper then spoken
knit verb 1081 Magazine (by far)
deserves Verb 883 Magazine then newspaper
overlooked Verb 797 Academic
owes verb 631 Academic and newspaper
tending Verb 423 Non-academic
despised Verb 399 Fiction
minced Verb 88 Magazine
obeys Verb 48 Non-academic

 

Notes: 40 nouns, 19 verbs, 14 adjectives, 7 adverbs, 1 conjunction, 1 preposition

 

American 3    
cents 3    
dollars 3    
lb 3    
Oil 3    
soda 3    

 

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WJEC Educas Component 2 Section A: ‘Waste not Want not’

I’m presenting my research at the NATE Conference, Saturday 24th June 2017, 09.15 Research slot.

This analysis of the first extract ‘Waste not Want not’ from the WJEC Educas sample assessment material (SAM).  This builds on a series of posts that begin with my quest, then move onto analyse AQA 1 and AQA 2 extracts and then Edexcel 1 and Edexcel 2.

Overall this extract is fitting the patterns seen so far – magazine as a context is slightly up, probably due to the lifestyle nature of the article (food).  The number of Tier Two words is mid-way through the range already seen in previous extracts from AQA and Edexcel.

102 Tier Two words

 

admitted afford agony approximately article
attitude Average balaclava barmy begging
boiled Carton case challenge champions
charities Chucks cluck confessed constantly
context Cover dedicated deposited derives
dinner Dose dumped during earliest
edible Fraction handed heaped hell
however interview interviewer joint landfill
latest Least local lurks manure
memories Merely moral mould mug-full
murderer naturally needy nonsense official
partly Passed passing perfectly plain
portions product Proverb rationing reasonably
recipe recommend recycling regulations report
restaurant Revealed ridicule rummage seconds
serial shameful shovel site slit
smarting Smug speciality steak superiority
swift Temple threatening thrown tons
typical unquestioned waiters wasteful weighs
whites wickedness wilds wonders worship
worth Yolks      

 

Contexts

Fiction and academic texts are again the two most dominant contexts: 28 and 18 respectively.  For the least frequently occurring words (under 1000 in the corpus) fiction is the most frequently occurring largest context(17/46) and then magazine (11/46).  There were 46 words under 1000 frequency (matches the highest score so far – Edexcel extract 1).

 

Places

Places have come up again as useful to know: that a common stereotype about Texas is that everything is bigger there and that Africa and Ethiopia are places we may associate with famines.

 

Measurements

Quite a few measurements in feet, inches, ounces and tons that all need making sense of if the amounts are to be understood.

 

Glossary

I was slightly surprised to find no glossary – not even for ‘proverb’ which I would have thought might need it.  I also think ‘Sunday joint’  might have needed an explanation.  Would be interesting to find out how it is decided what needs a glossary entry.

 

Full data lists below:

 

Tier 2 Words – Alphabetical Order

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
admitted Verb 5459 Newspaper
afford Verb 4347 Spoken then newspaper
agony noun 899 Fiction
approximately Adverb 2759 Academic
article Noun 6501 Academic
attitude Noun 5815 Academic
average Adjective 9651 Misc then academic
balaclava Noun 69 Newspaper then fiction
barmy Adjective 84 Fiction
begging Verb 475 Fiction
boiled Verb 655 Fiction
carton noun 140 Fiction
case Noun 44616 Academic
challenge verb 6656 Newspaper
champions Noun 1462 Newspaper
charities Noun 924 Newspaper
chucks Verb 30 Magazine then spoken
cluck Verb 17 Fiction
confessed verb 698 Fiction
constantly Adverb 2961 Magazine
context Noun 8431 Academic
cover Verb 10763 Magazine
dedicated Adjective 1896 Magazine
deposited verb 713 Non-academic
derives Verb 605 Academic
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
dose Noun 1631 Academic
dumped Verb 851 Newspaper then fiction
during Preposition 42784 Non-academic
earliest Adverb (superlative) 1944 Non-academic
edible Adjective 198 Magazine
fraction Noun 1443 Academic
handed verb 3309 Fiction
heaped verb 197 Fiction
hell noun 5005 Fiction
however Adverb 58967 Academic
interview Noun 4522 Newspaper
interviewer Noun 552 Misc
joint Noun 6822 Non-academic
landfill Noun 231 Magazine
latest Adjective (superlative) 6277 Newspaper
least Determiner 29875 Academic
local Adjective 45548 Academic
lurks Verb 85 Magazine
manure Noun 294 magazine
memories Noun 2498 Fiction
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
moral Adjective 5236 Academic
mould Noun 992 Magazine
mug-full (mugful) noun 2 Fiction (Mug-full 0 /mugful = 2)
murderer Noun 760 Fiction
naturally Adverb 4086 Fiction
needy Adjective 244 Newspaper
nonsense Noun 1527 Fiction
official Adjective 9335 Non-academic
partly Adverb 5519 Academic
passed Verb 10032 Fiction
passing Verb 4588 Fiction
perfectly Adverb 4268 Fiction
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
portions Noun 414 Non-academic
product noun 10875 Misc
Proverb Noun 96 Non-academic
rationing Verb 316 Misc, non-academic
reasonably Adverb 2969 Academic
recipe Noun 975 Magazine
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
recycling Noun 1042 Misc
regulations noun 4160 Misc
report Noun 23257 Non-academic
restaurant Noun 3315 Misc
revealed Verb 5102 Newspaper
ridicule Noun 240 Misc, then fiction
rummage Verb 63 Misc
seconds Noun 4010 Fiction
serial Noun 1073 Non-academic
shameful Adjective 230 Fiction
shovel noun 196 Spoken then fiction
site Noun 9708 Newspaper
slit Verb 372 Fiction
smarting Verb 78 Fiction
smug Adjective 262 Fiction
speciality noun 471 Misc
steak Noun 463 Spoken
superiority noun 743 Academic
swift Adjective 1187 Swift
temple Noun 2024 Misc
threatening Verb 1892 Newspaper
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
tons Noun 1130 Non-academic
typical Adjective 4737 Academic
unquestioned Adjective 92 Academic
waiters noun 233 Fiction
wasteful Adjective 278 Non-academic
weighs verb 307 Magazine
whites Noun 910 Magazine
wickedness Noun 158 Fiction
wilds noun 90 Fiction
wonders Noun 812 magazine
worship Noun 1583 Misc
worth Noun 11878 Newspaper
yolks Noun 97 Magazine

 

Tier 2 Words – BNC Frequency

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
however Adverb 58967 Academic
local Adjective 45548 Academic
case Noun 44616 Academic
during Preposition 42784 Non-academic
least Determiner 29875 Academic
report Noun 23257 Non-academic
worth Noun 11878 Newspaper
product noun 10875 Misc
cover Verb 10763 Magazine
passed Verb 10032 Fiction
site Noun 9708 Newspaper
average Adjective 9651 Misc then academic
official Adjective 9335 Non-academic
context Noun 8431 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
joint Noun 6822 Non-academic
challenge verb 6656 Newspaper
article Noun 6501 Academic
latest Adjective (superlative) 6277 Newspaper
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
attitude Noun 5815 Academic
partly Adverb 5519 Academic
admitted Verb 5459 Newspaper
moral Adjective 5236 Academic
revealed Verb 5102 Newspaper
hell noun 5005 Fiction
typical Adjective 4737 Academic
passing Verb 4588 Fiction
interview Noun 4522 Newspaper
afford Verb 4347 Spoken then newspaper
perfectly Adverb 4268 Fiction
regulations noun 4160 Misc
naturally Adverb 4086 Fiction
seconds Noun 4010 Fiction
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
restaurant Noun 3315 Misc
handed verb 3309 Fiction
reasonably Adverb 2969 Academic
constantly Adverb 2961 Magazine
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
approximately Adverb 2759 Academic
memories Noun 2498 Fiction
temple Noun 2024 Misc
earliest Adverb (superlative) 1944 Non-academic
dedicated Adjective 1896 Magazine
threatening Verb 1892 Newspaper
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
dose Noun 1631 Academic
worship Noun 1583 Misc
nonsense Noun 1527 Fiction
champions Noun 1462 Newspaper
fraction Noun 1443 Academic
swift Adjective 1187 Swift
tons Noun 1130 Non-academic
serial Noun 1073 Non-academic
recycling Noun 1042 Misc
mould Noun 992 Magazine
recipe Noun 975 Magazine
charities Noun 924 Newspaper
whites Noun 910 Magazine
agony noun 899 Fiction
dumped Verb 851 Newspaper then fiction
wonders Noun 812 magazine
murderer Noun 760 Fiction
superiority noun 743 Academic
deposited verb 713 Non-academic
confessed verb 698 Fiction
boiled Verb 655 Fiction
derives Verb 605 Academic
interviewer Noun 552 Misc
begging Verb 475 Fiction
speciality noun 471 Misc
steak Noun 463 Spoken
portions Noun 414 Non-academic
slit Verb 372 Fiction
rationing Verb 316 Misc, non-academic
weighs verb 307 Magazine
manure Noun 294 magazine
wasteful Adjective 278 Non-academic
smug Adjective 262 Fiction
needy Adjective 244 Newspaper
ridicule Noun 240 Misc, then fiction
waiters noun 233 Fiction
landfill Noun 231 Magazine
shameful Adjective 230 Fiction
edible Adjective 198 Magazine
heaped verb 197 Fiction
shovel noun 196 Spoken then fiction
wickedness Noun 158 Fiction
carton noun 140 Fiction
yolks Noun 97 Magazine
Proverb Noun 96 Non-academic
unquestioned Adjective 92 Academic
wilds noun 90 Fiction
lurks Verb 85 Magazine
barmy Adjective 84 Fiction
smarting Verb 78 Fiction
balaclava Noun 69 Newspaper then fiction
rummage Verb 63 Misc
chucks Verb 30 Magazine then spoken
cluck Verb 17 Fiction
mug-full (mugful) noun 2 Fiction (Mug-full 0 /mugful = 2)

 

Notes: 46 words under 1000 frequence: 17 Fiction, 11 Magazine, 5 misc, 4 newspaper, 4 non-academic, 3 academic, 2 spoken.

 

24 nouns, 15 verbs, 7 adjectives

 

Tier 2 Words – Largest Context

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
however Adverb 58967 Academic
local Adjective 45548 Academic
case Noun 44616 Academic
least Determiner 29875 Academic
context Noun 8431 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
article Noun 6501 Academic
attitude Noun 5815 Academic
partly Adverb 5519 Academic
moral Adjective 5236 Academic
typical Adjective 4737 Academic
reasonably Adverb 2969 Academic
approximately Adverb 2759 Academic
dose Noun 1631 Academic
fraction Noun 1443 Academic
superiority noun 743 Academic
derives Verb 605 Academic
unquestioned Adjective 92 Academic
passed Verb 10032 Fiction
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
hell noun 5005 Fiction
passing Verb 4588 Fiction
perfectly Adverb 4268 Fiction
naturally Adverb 4086 Fiction
seconds Noun 4010 Fiction
handed verb 3309 Fiction
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
memories Noun 2498 Fiction
nonsense Noun 1527 Fiction
agony noun 899 Fiction
murderer Noun 760 Fiction
confessed verb 698 Fiction
boiled Verb 655 Fiction
begging Verb 475 Fiction
slit Verb 372 Fiction
smug Adjective 262 Fiction
waiters noun 233 Fiction
shameful Adjective 230 Fiction
heaped verb 197 Fiction
wickedness Noun 158 Fiction
carton noun 140 Fiction
wilds noun 90 Fiction
barmy Adjective 84 Fiction
smarting Verb 78 Fiction
cluck Verb 17 Fiction
mug-full (mugful) noun 2 Fiction (Mug-full 0 /mugful = 2)
cover Verb 10763 Magazine
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
constantly Adverb 2961 Magazine
dedicated Adjective 1896 Magazine
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
mould Noun 992 Magazine
recipe Noun 975 Magazine
whites Noun 910 Magazine
wonders Noun 812 magazine
weighs verb 307 Magazine
manure Noun 294 magazine
landfill Noun 231 Magazine
edible Adjective 198 Magazine
yolks Noun 97 Magazine
lurks Verb 85 Magazine
chucks Verb 30 Magazine then spoken
product noun 10875 Misc
regulations noun 4160 Misc
restaurant Noun 3315 Misc
temple Noun 2024 Misc
worship Noun 1583 Misc
recycling Noun 1042 Misc
interviewer Noun 552 Misc
speciality noun 471 Misc
rummage Verb 63 Misc
average Adjective 9651 Misc then academic
rationing Verb 316 Misc, non-academic
ridicule Noun 240 Misc, then fiction
worth Noun 11878 Newspaper
site Noun 9708 Newspaper
challenge verb 6656 Newspaper
latest Adjective (superlative) 6277 Newspaper
admitted Verb 5459 Newspaper
revealed Verb 5102 Newspaper
interview Noun 4522 Newspaper
threatening Verb 1892 Newspaper
champions Noun 1462 Newspaper
charities Noun 924 Newspaper
needy Adjective 244 Newspaper
dumped Verb 851 Newspaper then fiction
balaclava Noun 69 Newspaper then fiction
during Preposition 42784 Non-academic
report Noun 23257 Non-academic
official Adjective 9335 Non-academic
joint Noun 6822 Non-academic
earliest Adverb (superlative) 1944 Non-academic
tons Noun 1130 Non-academic
serial Noun 1073 Non-academic
deposited verb 713 Non-academic
portions Noun 414 Non-academic
wasteful Adjective 278 Non-academic
Proverb Noun 96 Non-academic
steak Noun 463 Spoken
shovel noun 196 Spoken then fiction
afford Verb 4347 Spoken then newspaper
swift Adjective 1187  

 

Notes: Fiction 28, Academic 18, Magazine 16, Newspaper 13, Misc 12, Non-academic 11, Spoken 3 (missed 1)

 

Tier 2 Words – types of word

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
local Adjective 45548 Academic
average Adjective 9651 Misc then academic
official Adjective 9335 Non-academic
moral Adjective 5236 Academic
typical Adjective 4737 Academic
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
dedicated Adjective 1896 Magazine
swift Adjective 1187 Swift
wasteful Adjective 278 Non-academic
smug Adjective 262 Fiction
needy Adjective 244 Newspaper
shameful Adjective 230 Fiction
edible Adjective 198 Magazine
unquestioned Adjective 92 Academic
barmy Adjective 84 Fiction
latest Adjective (superlative) 6277 Newspaper
however Adverb 58967 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
partly Adverb 5519 Academic
perfectly Adverb 4268 Fiction
naturally Adverb 4086 Fiction
reasonably Adverb 2969 Academic
constantly Adverb 2961 Magazine
approximately Adverb 2759 Academic
earliest Adverb (superlative) 1944 Non-academic
least Determiner 29875 Academic
case Noun 44616 Academic
report Noun 23257 Non-academic
worth Noun 11878 Newspaper
product noun 10875 Misc
site Noun 9708 Newspaper
context Noun 8431 Academic
joint Noun 6822 Non-academic
article Noun 6501 Academic
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
attitude Noun 5815 Academic
hell noun 5005 Fiction
interview Noun 4522 Newspaper
regulations noun 4160 Misc
seconds Noun 4010 Fiction
restaurant Noun 3315 Misc
memories Noun 2498 Fiction
temple Noun 2024 Misc
dose Noun 1631 Academic
worship Noun 1583 Misc
nonsense Noun 1527 Fiction
champions Noun 1462 Newspaper
fraction Noun 1443 Academic
tons Noun 1130 Non-academic
serial Noun 1073 Non-academic
recycling Noun 1042 Misc
mould Noun 992 Magazine
recipe Noun 975 Magazine
charities Noun 924 Newspaper
whites Noun 910 Magazine
agony noun 899 Fiction
wonders Noun 812 magazine
murderer Noun 760 Fiction
superiority noun 743 Academic
interviewer Noun 552 Misc
speciality noun 471 Misc
steak Noun 463 Spoken
portions Noun 414 Non-academic
manure Noun 294 magazine
ridicule Noun 240 Misc, then fiction
waiters noun 233 Fiction
landfill Noun 231 Magazine
shovel noun 196 Spoken then fiction
wickedness Noun 158 Fiction
carton noun 140 Fiction
yolks Noun 97 Magazine
Proverb Noun 96 Non-academic
wilds noun 90 Fiction
balaclava Noun 69 Newspaper then fiction
mug-full (mugful) noun 2 Fiction (Mug-full 0 /mugful = 2)
during Preposition 42784 Non-academic
cover Verb 10763 Magazine
passed Verb 10032 Fiction
challenge verb 6656 Newspaper
admitted Verb 5459 Newspaper
revealed Verb 5102 Newspaper
passing Verb 4588 Fiction
afford Verb 4347 Spoken then newspaper
handed verb 3309 Fiction
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
threatening Verb 1892 Newspaper
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
dumped Verb 851 Newspaper then fiction
deposited verb 713 Non-academic
confessed verb 698 Fiction
boiled Verb 655 Fiction
derives Verb 605 Academic
begging Verb 475 Fiction
slit Verb 372 Fiction
rationing Verb 316 Misc, non-academic
weighs verb 307 Magazine
heaped verb 197 Fiction
lurks Verb 85 Magazine
smarting Verb 78 Fiction
rummage Verb 63 Misc
chucks Verb 30 Magazine then spoken
cluck Verb 17 Fiction

 

Notes: Nouns 49, Verbs 26, Adjectives 16, Adverbs 9

 

Tier 3 words

 

£400      
£50      
30      
50      
500000      
6ft      
6in      
70      
72oz      
Africa      
Americans      
British      
Ethiopian      
Texan      
Texas    

Edexcel Paper 2 Text 2: Breaking Codes

I’m presenting my research at the NATE Conference, Saturday 24th June 2017, 09.15 Research slot.

This analysis of Text 2 from the sample assessment material (SAM) for the Edexcel English language GCSE specification builds on my analysis of the SAM for Edexcel Paper 2 Text 1, AQA Source A and Source B.

Tier Two words

73 Tier Two words

 

     
armed assume babble background basis
break breaking brief cheer combinations
complex concealing confidence confirmed converted
convinced crumpled currency describes dictionaries
discovered during elementary embarking enemy
enough extract frequency hardly increasingly
individual information ink innocent intelligence
interest invisible judgement lack letters
marginally message millions pairs patience
permutation phrase plain proceeded repetition
responsible resting secure self-esteem set
showed slightest slogging solved stake
stammer step substitution success suitable
supervisor task tedious text tricky
unbreakable uncover uphill    

 

There were 229 Tier Two words overall in the two Edexcel texts compared to 136 in the two AQA extracts.

There is very little overlap of Tier Two words across the four texts so far: only one word (‘increasingly’) appears in three (out of four) extracts; eleven appear in two of the extracts (assignment, attention, conceal[ing], crumpled, information, intelligence, interview, received, text, typical, whether).

Low frequency words (in the corpus)

The contexts for the least frequently occurring words in the British National Corpus (BNC) for this extract follow a similar pattern to the AQA texts.  There are 23 words that had less than 1000 frequency, very similar numbers to the two AQA extracts (25 and 22 words), but fewer than the other Edexcel text (46).  Fiction and academic texts were, again, the most frequent sources for these unusual words (8/23 and 7/23 respectively).

Contexts

Over the four extracts analysed so far academic texts feature as an important context for Tier Two words.  They are very dominant in this text (24/73 – of which 14 are nouns).  Fiction was next in line (15/73 – of which 7 are adjectives).  The important question here is just how much access students have to academic writing at secondary school.  I’m assuming text books would be the most likely source – the question is how much reading from text books secondary school students actually do.

Other useful knowledge

The Tier Three words are linguistic (consonants, indicators, linguist), related to coding (code(s), enciphered – which is in the glossary, Playfair) and to do with World War 2 (government-in-exile, Dutch, German, Netherlands).  Knowledge of places has come up as useful before: Lisbon, Czech, Africa, the Middle East in the first Edexcel text and the distance between Yorkshire and Islington in the second AQA text.

Onwards …

Next stop the WJEC/Educas SAMS.  It will be interesting to see if these texts fit into the average number of Tier 2 words appearing (around 70), if academic texts remain an important context and if knowledge of places is useful again …

 

Tier 2 Words – Alphabetical Order

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
armed Verb 4526 Non-academic
assume Verb 4004 Academic
babble Noun 103 Fiction
background Noun 5997 Academic
basis Noun 14228 Academic
break Verb 8976 Newspaper
breaking Verb 3131 Newspaper
brief Adjective 5416 Fiction
cheer Noun 724 Fiction
combinations Noun 940 Academic
complex Adjective 9294 Academic
concealing Verb 230 Fiction
confidence Noun 6766 Newspaper
confirmed Verb 4758 Newspaper
converted Verb 2258 Newspaper/non-academic
convinced Verb 3128 Newspaper
crumpled Verb 379 Fiction
currency Noun 3329 Non-academic
describes Verb 2599 Academic
dictionaries Noun 394 Academic
discovered Verb 6124 newspaper
during preposition 42784 Non-academic
elementary Adjective 699 Non-academic
embarking Verb 302 Misc
enemy Noun 3127 Non-academic
enough Adjective 30765 Fiction
extract Noun 1421 Academic
frequency Noun 2775 Academic
hardly Adverb 8323 Fiction
increasingly Adverb 6494 Academic
individual Adjective 18797 Academic
information Noun 37833 Misc
ink Noun 786 Magazine
innocent Adjectives 2440 Fiction
Intelligence Proper noun 3344 Non-academic
interest Verb 26772 Misc
invisible Adjective 1188 Fiction
judgement Noun 2421 Academic
lack Noun 9751 Academic
letters Noun 7606 Magazine
marginally Adverb 431 Academic
message Noun 6557 Misc/newspaper
millions Noun 2578 Newspaper
pairs Noun 2075 Academic
patience Noun 1144 Fiction
permutation Noun 29 Academic
phrase Noun 2995 Academic
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
proceeded Verb 1020 Non-academic
repetition Noun 882 Academic
responsible Adjective 9177 Non-academic/academic
resting Verb 1166 Fiction
Secure Adjective 4501 Non-academic/academic
self-esteem Noun 432 Non-academic/academic
set Verb 43431 Magazine, newspaper, misc
showed Verb 10294 Academic
slightest Adjective 844 Fiction
slogging Verb 30 Magazine/newspaper
solved Verb 1125 Academic
stake Noun 2072 Newspaper
stammer Verb 67 Fiction
step Noun 8412 Magazine/fiction
substitution Adjective 677 Academic
success Noun 13067 Newspaper/misc
suitable Adjective 5953 Misc/magazine
supervisor Noun 707 Misc
task Noun 8917 Academic
tedious Adjective 499 Fiction/magazine
text Noun 6865 Academic
tricky Adjective 627 Magazine
unbreakable Adjective 57 Fiction
uncover Verb 240 Academic
uphill adjective 351 Magazine

 

Tier 2 Words – in order of BNC frequency

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
set Verb 43431 Magazine, newspaper, misc
during preposition 42784 Non-academic
information Noun 37833 Misc
enough Adjective 30765 Fiction
interest Verb 26772 Misc
individual Adjective 18797 Academic
basis Noun 14228 Academic
success Noun 13067 Newspaper/misc
showed Verb 10294 Academic
lack Noun 9751 Academic
complex Adjective 9294 Academic
responsible Adjective 9177 Non-academic/academic
break Verb 8976 newspaper
task Noun 8917 Academic
step Noun 8412 Magazine/fiction
hardly Adverb 8323 Fiction
letters Noun 7606 Magazine
text Noun 6865 Academic
confidence Noun 6766 Newspaper
message Noun 6557 Misc/newspaper
increasingly Adverb 6494 Academic
discovered Verb 6124 newspaper
background Noun 5997 Academic
suitable Adjective 5953 Misc/magazine
brief Adjective 5416 Fiction
confirmed Verb 4758 Newspaper
armed Verb 4526 Non-academic
Secure Adjective 4501 Non-academic/academic
assume Verb 4004 Academic
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
Intelligence Proper noun 3344 Non-academic
currency Noun 3329 Non-academic
breaking Verb 3131 Newspaper
convinced Verb 3128 Newspaper
enemy Noun 3127 Non-academic
phrase Noun 2995 Academic
frequency Noun 2775 Academic
describes Verb 2599 Academic
millions Noun 2578 Newspaper
innocent Adjectives 2440 Fiction
judgement Noun 2421 Academic
converted Verb 2258 Newspaper/non-academic
pairs Noun 2075 Academic
stake Noun 2072 Newspaper
extract Noun 1421 Academic
invisible Adjective 1188 Fiction
resting Verb 1166 Fiction
patience Noun 1144 Fiction
solved Verb 1125 Academic
proceeded Verb 1020 Non-academic
combinations Noun 940 Academic
repetition Noun 882 Academic
slightest Adjective 844 Fiction
ink Noun 786 Magazine
cheer Noun 724 Fiction
supervisor Noun 707 Misc
elementary Adjective 699 Non-academic
substitution Adjective 677 Academic
tricky Adjective 627 Magazine
tedious Adjective 499 Fiction/magazine
self-esteem Noun 432 Non-academic/academic
marginally Adverb 431 Academic
dictionaries Noun 394 Academic
crumpled Verb 379 Fiction
uphill adjective 351 Magazine
embarking Verb 302 Misc
uncover Verb 240 Academic
concealing Verb 230 Fiction
babble Noun 103 Fiction
stammer Verb 67 Fiction
unbreakable Adjective 57 Fiction
slogging Verb 30 Magazine/newspaper
permutation Noun 29 Academic

Notes:

  • 23 words under 1000 frequency: 9/23 nouns; 7/23 adjectives; 6/23 verbs; 1 adverb
  • 7/23 Academic (4 nouns); 8/23 Fiction (3 verbs, 3 adjectives, 2 nouns); 4/23 Magazine; 2/23 Misc; 2/23 non-academic
  • Edexcel Text 1: 46 words under 1000 frequency
  • AQA Text 1: 25 words under 1000 frequency
  • AQA Text 2: 22 words under 1000 frequency

Tier 2 words – in order of largest context

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
Complex Adjective 9294 Academic
Individual Adjective 18797 Academic
Substitution Adjective 677 Academic
Increasingly Adverb 6494 Academic
Marginally Adverb 431 Academic
Background Noun 5997 Academic
Basis Noun 14228 Academic
Combinations Noun 940 Academic
Dictionaries Noun 394 Academic
Extract Noun 1421 Academic
Frequency Noun 2775 Academic
Judgement Noun 2421 Academic
Lack Noun 9751 Academic
Pairs Noun 2075 Academic
Permutation Noun 29 Academic
Phrase Noun 2995 Academic
Repetition Noun 882 Academic
Task Noun 8917 Academic
Text Noun 6865 Academic
Assume Verb 4004 Academic
Describes Verb 2599 Academic
Showed Verb 10294 Academic
Solved Verb 1125 Academic
Uncover Verb 240 Academic
Brief Adjective 5416 Fiction
Enough Adjective 30765 Fiction
Invisible Adjective 1188 Fiction
Slightest Adjective 844 Fiction
Unbreakable Adjective 57 Fiction
Innocent Adjective 2440 Fiction
Hardly Adverb 8323 Fiction
Babble Noun 103 Fiction
Cheer Noun 724 Fiction
Patience Noun 1144 Fiction
Concealing Verb 230 Fiction
Crumpled Verb 379 Fiction
Resting Verb 1166 Fiction
Stammer Verb 67 Fiction
Tedious Adjective 499 Fiction/magazine
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
tricky Adjective 627 Magazine
uphill adjective 351 Magazine
ink Noun 786 Magazine
letters Noun 7606 Magazine
set Verb 43431 Magazine, newspaper, misc
step Noun 8412 Magazine/fiction
slogging Verb 30 Magazine/newspaper
information Noun 37833 Misc
supervisor Noun 707 Misc
embarking Verb 302 Misc
interest Verb 26772 Misc
suitable Adjective 5953 Misc/magazine
message Noun 6557 Misc/newspaper
confidence Noun 6766 Newspaper
millions Noun 2578 Newspaper
stake Noun 2072 Newspaper
break Verb 8976 Newspaper
breaking Verb 3131 Newspaper
confirmed Verb 4758 Newspaper
convinced Verb 3128 Newspaper
discovered Verb 6124 Newspaper
success Noun 13067 Newspaper/misc
converted Verb 2258 Newspaper/non-academic
elementary Adjective 699 Non-academic
currency Noun 3329 Non-academic
enemy Noun 3127 Non-academic
during preposition 42784 Non-academic
Intelligence Proper noun 3344 Non-academic
armed Verb 4526 Non-academic
proceeded Verb 1020 Non-academic
responsible Adjective 9177 Non-academic/academic
Secure Adjective 4501 Non-academic/academic
self-esteem Noun 432 Non-academic/academic

Notes: 24 Academic (14 nouns); 15 Fiction (7 adjectives); 10 newspaper; 10 non-academic; 8 magazine; 6 miscellaneous

Tier 2 Words – in order or type of word

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
brief Adjective 5416 Fiction
complex Adjective 9294 Academic
elementary Adjective 699 Non-academic
enough Adjective 30765 Fiction
individual Adjective 18797 Academic
invisible Adjective 1188 Fiction
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
responsible Adjective 9177 Non-academic/academic
Secure Adjective 4501 Non-academic/academic
slightest Adjective 844 Fiction
substitution Adjective 677 Academic
suitable Adjective 5953 Misc/magazine
tedious Adjective 499 Fiction/magazine
tricky Adjective 627 Magazine
unbreakable Adjective 57 Fiction
uphill adjective 351 Magazine
innocent Adjectives 2440 Fiction
hardly Adverb 8323 Fiction
increasingly Adverb 6494 Academic
marginally Adverb 431 Academic
babble Noun 103 Fiction
background Noun 5997 Academic
basis Noun 14228 Academic
cheer Noun 724 Fiction
combinations Noun 940 Academic
confidence Noun 6766 Newspaper
currency Noun 3329 Non-academic
dictionaries Noun 394 Academic
enemy Noun 3127 Non-academic
extract Noun 1421 Academic
frequency Noun 2775 Academic
information Noun 37833 Misc
Ink Noun 786 Magazine
judgement Noun 2421 Academic
Lack Noun 9751 Academic
Letters Noun 7606 Magazine
message Noun 6557 Misc/newspaper
millions Noun 2578 Newspaper
Pairs Noun 2075 Academic
patience Noun 1144 Fiction
permutation Noun 29 Academic
phrase Noun 2995 Academic
repetition Noun 882 Academic
self-esteem Noun 432 Non-academic/academic
Stake Noun 2072 Newspaper
Step Noun 8412 Magazine/fiction
success Noun 13067 Newspaper/misc
supervisor Noun 707 Misc
Task Noun 8917 Academic
Text Noun 6865 Academic
During preposition 42784 Non-academic
Intelligence Proper noun 3344 Non-academic
Armed Verb 4526 Non-academic
assume Verb 4004 Academic
Break Verb 8976 newspaper
breaking Verb 3131 Newspaper
concealing Verb 230 Fiction
confirmed Verb 4758 Newspaper
converted Verb 2258 Newspaper/non-academic
convinced Verb 3128 Newspaper
crumpled Verb 379 Fiction
describes Verb 2599 Academic
discovered Verb 6124 newspaper
embarking Verb 302 Misc
interest Verb 26772 Misc
proceeded Verb 1020 Non-academic
Resting Verb 1166 Fiction
Set Verb 43431 Magazine, newspaper, misc
showed Verb 10294 Academic
slogging Verb 30 Magazine/newspaper
Solved Verb 1125 Academic
stammer Verb 67 Fiction
uncover Verb 240 Academic

Notes: 30 nouns; 21 Verbs; 17 adjectives; 3 adverbs

Tier Three Words

code 3    
codes 3    
consonants 3    
enciphered 3    
government-in-exile 3    
guilders 3    
indicators 3    
linguist 3    
Playfair 3    
Dutch 3    
German 3    
Netherlands 3