WJEC Educas Component 2 Section B: The American Frugal Housewife

This analysis of the second extract ‘The American Frugal Housewife’ from the WJEC Educas sample assessment material (SAM).  This builds on a series of posts that begin with my quest, then move onto analyse AQA 1 and AQA 2 extracts and then Edexcel 1 and Edexcel 2.  I have already analysed the first extract from the Edexcel SAMs.

I’ve accepted that I’m not going to be able to fully analyse the OCR extracts in time for my research presentation at the NATE Conference, Saturday 24th June 2017, 09.15 Research slot but I will have some initial findings.

This extract has a slightly higher number of Tier Two words than the AQA extracts (60+76) but Edexcel still has the highest overall (156 + 73).  Magazine features more highly as a context again, like the other WJEC extract, due to the lifestyle nature of the article.

82 Tier Two words
aged art avarice; baked beef
charity coals collected Cotton creditors
deserves despised dinner doubtful earning
economical economy employed employment ensure
etc expenditure experience feeling fragments
frugal gathering generally generous housekeeping
Housewife however impulse injury instinct
knit knitting lard laying materials
member merely mince minced nor
obeys odd opportunity otherwise overlooked
owes per permanent persons power
praise purchased readiness recommend saving
savoury selfish simply skins stew
stockings sufficient sundries supper tending
thoughtlessly thrown Total trifling ungenerous
vegetables virtue wants wasted woollen
woven yarn      

 

No glossary

 

There was no glossary again for this extract, like the first WJEC one, not even for ‘frugal’ which I feel is central to the meaning and a quite unusual word (frequency of 79).

 

Contexts

 

Despite the nature of the article the largest context is still academic (21/82).  Newspaper as a context is low but magazine higher.  Fiction continues to feature as an important context for Tier Two words in general and for the least frequently occurring too (19/82 and 10/30) with magazine having about the same numbers.

 

Other knowledge/Tier 3

 

Like the first WJEC text units of measurement and currency feature: 1b, cents and dollars. I would have thought most students would assume ‘soda’ meant fizzy drinks but that probably wouldn’t be crucial.  Although ‘economy’ as a Tier Two word features quite frequently in the corpus it probably doesn’t feature as meaning being thrifty or reducing expenditure in a budget predominantly.

 

Range of Tier Two words across all six texts

 

A small body of repeated Tier Two words is emerging:

28 words have now appeared in two texts (assignment(s), attention, crumpled, dinner, during, earliest, favour(ed), housekeeping, however, information, intelligence, intend(ed), latest, manage(d), memories, merely, nor, official, opportunity, plain, powers, received, recommend, text, thrown, whether, worship, worth).  Only 3 words appear in three texts (increasingly, typical, interview).

This leaves 515 Tier Two words to know across the six texts. (549-28-3-3) of which 192 have frequency scores below 1000.  Quite a large body of words required to comprehend this relatively small group of extracts.

I expected a larger number of repeated words to emerge to allow some targeted vocabulary instruction but 515 seems almost too large to work with.

OCR

I’ve done some preliminary work on the OCR extracts to present on Saturday and will analyse fully next week.

Tier 2 Words – alphabetical order

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context (per mill)
aged Adjective 4584 Newspaper
art Noun 14987 Magazine
avarice noun 49 Fiction
baked Noun 644 Fiction
beef Noun 1481 Magazine
charity Noun 3627 Newspaper
coals Noun 248 Coals
collected verb 3442 Academic
Cotton Noun 2348 Magazine
creditors Noun 1106 Academic
deserves Verb 883 Magazine then newspaper
despised Verb 399 Fiction
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
doubtful adjective 1202 Academic
earning verb 1133 Newspaper then spoken
economical Adjective 489 Magazine
economy Noun 10174 Non-academic
employed verb 5001 Academic
Employment Noun 10562 Academic
ensure Verb 10137 Misc
etc Adverb 4393 Misc
expenditure noun 5408 Misc
experience Noun 20924 Academic
feeling noun 12308 Fiction
fragments noun 1317 Academic
frugal Adjective 79 Magazine then fiction
gathering verb 1811 Fiction
generally Adverb 11352 Academic
generous adjective 2234 Magazine
housekeeping Noun 341 Magazine
Housewife Noun 621 Non-academic
however Adverb 58967 Academic
impulse Noun 713 Fiction
injury Noun 4556 Academic
instinct noun 1057 Fiction
knit verb 1081 Magazine (by far)
knitting Verb 1611 Magazine
lard noun 84 Magazine
laying Verb 1322 Fiction (just)
materials Noun 6691 Non-academic
member Noun 17107 Misc
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
mince noun 295 Spoken
minced Verb 88 Magazine
nor Conjunction 11879 Academic
obeys Verb 48 Non-academic
odd Adjective 4255 Fiction
opportunity Noun 10026 misc
otherwise Adverb 8558 Academic
overlooked Verb 797 Academic
owes verb 631 Academic and newspaper
per Preposition 52333 Non-academic
permanent Adjective 4410 Non-academic
persons Noun 3943 Academic
power noun 31134 Academic
praise noun 1563 Misc
purchased verb 1664 Magazine
readiness Noun 583 Non-academic
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
saving Verb 2310 misc
savoury Adjective 164 Magazine
selfish Adjective 648 Fiction
simply adverb 17099 Academic
skins Noun 623 Magazine
stew Noun 325 Fiction
stockings Noun 453 Fiction
sufficient Adjective 5827 Academic
sundries noun 16 Misc
supper Noun 1390 Fiction
tending Verb 423 Non-academic
thoughtlessly Adverb 42 Fiction
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
Total Noun 17097 Misc
trifling Adjective 90 Academic
ungenerous Adjective 36 Fiction
vegetables noun 1750 Magazine
virtue noun 1817 Academic
wants Noun 8613 Spoken
wasted adjective 1311 Fiction
woollen Noun 488 Fiction
woven Adjective 587 Magazine
yarn noun 866 Magazine

 

Tier Two words – BNC Frequency

 

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context (per mill)
however Adverb 58967 Academic
per Preposition 52333 Non-academic
power noun 31134 Academic
experience Noun 20924 Academic
member Noun 17107 Misc
simply adverb 17099 Academic
Total Noun 17097 Misc
art Noun 14987 Magazine
feeling noun 12308 Fiction
nor Conjunction 11879 Academic
generally Adverb 11352 Academic
Employment Noun 10562 Academic
economy Noun 10174 Non-academic
ensure Verb 10137 Misc
opportunity Noun 10026 misc
wants Noun 8613 Spoken
otherwise Adverb 8558 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
materials Noun 6691 Non-academic
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
sufficient Adjective 5827 Academic
expenditure noun 5408 Misc
employed verb 5001 Academic
aged Adjective 4584 Newspaper
injury Noun 4556 Academic
permanent Adjective 4410 Non-academic
etc Adverb 4393 Misc
odd Adjective 4255 Fiction
persons Noun 3943 Academic
charity Noun 3627 Newspaper
collected verb 3442 Academic
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
Cotton Noun 2348 Magazine
saving Verb 2310 misc
generous adjective 2234 Magazine
virtue noun 1817 Academic
gathering verb 1811 Fiction
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
vegetables noun 1750 Magazine
purchased verb 1664 Magazine
knitting Verb 1611 Magazine
praise noun 1563 Misc
beef Noun 1481 Magazine
supper Noun 1390 Fiction
laying Verb 1322 Fiction (just)
fragments noun 1317 Academic
wasted adjective 1311 Fiction
doubtful adjective 1202 Academic
earning verb 1133 Newspaper then spoken
creditors Noun 1106 Academic
knit verb 1081 Magazine (by far)
instinct noun 1057 Fiction
deserves Verb 883 Magazine then newspaper
yarn noun 866 Magazine
overlooked Verb 797 Academic
impulse Noun 713 Fiction
selfish Adjective 648 Fiction
baked Noun 644 Fiction
owes verb 631 Academic and newspaper
skins Noun 623 Magazine
Housewife Noun 621 Non-academic
woven Adjective 587 Magazine
readiness Noun 583 Non-academic
economical Adjective 489 Magazine
woollen Noun 488 Fiction
stockings Noun 453 Fiction
tending Verb 423 Non-academic
despised Verb 399 Fiction
housekeeping Noun 341 Magazine
stew Noun 325 Fiction
mince noun 295 Spoken
coals Noun 248  
savoury Adjective 164 Magazine
trifling Adjective 90 Academic
minced Verb 88 Magazine
lard noun 84 Magazine
frugal Adjective 79 Magazine then fiction
avarice noun 49 Fiction
obeys Verb 48 Non-academic
thoughtlessly Adverb 42 Fiction
ungenerous Adjective 36 Fiction
sundries noun 16 Misc

 

Notes: 30 words under 1000 frequency: 10 magazine, 10 fiction, 4 non-academic, 3 academic, 1 misc, 1 spoken, 1 missing

 

15 nouns , 7 adjectives, 7 verbs, 1 adverb

 

Tier 2 Words – Largest Contexts

 

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context (per mill)
however Adverb 58967 Academic
power noun 31134 Academic
experience Noun 20924 Academic
simply adverb 17099 Academic
nor Conjunction 11879 Academic
generally Adverb 11352 Academic
Employment Noun 10562 Academic
otherwise Adverb 8558 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
sufficient Adjective 5827 Academic
employed verb 5001 Academic
injury Noun 4556 Academic
persons Noun 3943 Academic
collected verb 3442 Academic
virtue noun 1817 Academic
fragments noun 1317 Academic
doubtful adjective 1202 Academic
creditors Noun 1106 Academic
overlooked Verb 797 Academic
trifling Adjective 90 Academic
owes verb 631 Academic and newspaper
coals Noun 248  
feeling noun 12308 Fiction
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
odd Adjective 4255 Fiction
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
gathering verb 1811 Fiction
supper Noun 1390 Fiction
wasted adjective 1311 Fiction
instinct noun 1057 Fiction
impulse Noun 713 Fiction
selfish Adjective 648 Fiction
baked Noun 644 Fiction
woollen Noun 488 Fiction
stockings Noun 453 Fiction
despised Verb 399 Fiction
stew Noun 325 Fiction
avarice noun 49 Fiction
thoughtlessly Adverb 42 Fiction
ungenerous Adjective 36 Fiction
laying Verb 1322 Fiction (just)
art Noun 14987 Magazine
Cotton Noun 2348 Magazine
generous adjective 2234 Magazine
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
vegetables noun 1750 Magazine
purchased verb 1664 Magazine
knitting Verb 1611 Magazine
beef Noun 1481 Magazine
yarn noun 866 Magazine
skins Noun 623 Magazine
woven Adjective 587 Magazine
economical Adjective 489 Magazine
housekeeping Noun 341 Magazine
savoury Adjective 164 Magazine
minced Verb 88 Magazine
lard noun 84 Magazine
knit verb 1081 Magazine (by far)
frugal Adjective 79 Magazine then fiction
deserves Verb 883 Magazine then newspaper
member Noun 17107 Misc
Total Noun 17097 Misc
ensure Verb 10137 Misc
opportunity Noun 10026 misc
expenditure noun 5408 Misc
etc Adverb 4393 Misc
saving Verb 2310 misc
praise noun 1563 Misc
sundries noun 16 Misc
aged Adjective 4584 Newspaper
charity Noun 3627 Newspaper
earning verb 1133 Newspaper then spoken
per Preposition 52333 Non-academic
economy Noun 10174 Non-academic
materials Noun 6691 Non-academic
permanent Adjective 4410 Non-academic
Housewife Noun 621 Non-academic
readiness Noun 583 Non-academic
tending Verb 423 Non-academic
obeys Verb 48 Non-academic
wants Noun 8613 Spoken
mince noun 295 Spoken

 

Notes: 21 Academic, 19 Fiction, 19 Magazine, 9 Misc, 8 non-academic, 3 newspaper, 2 spoken, 1 missing

 

Tier 2 words – word types

 

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context (per mill)
sufficient Adjective 5827 Academic
aged Adjective 4584 Newspaper
permanent Adjective 4410 Non-academic
odd Adjective 4255 Fiction
generous adjective 2234 Magazine
wasted adjective 1311 Fiction
doubtful adjective 1202 Academic
selfish Adjective 648 Fiction
woven Adjective 587 Magazine
economical Adjective 489 Magazine
savoury Adjective 164 Magazine
trifling Adjective 90 Academic
frugal Adjective 79 Magazine then fiction
ungenerous Adjective 36 Fiction
however Adverb 58967 Academic
simply adverb 17099 Academic
generally Adverb 11352 Academic
otherwise Adverb 8558 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
etc Adverb 4393 Misc
thoughtlessly Adverb 42 Fiction
nor Conjunction 11879 Academic
power noun 31134 Academic
experience Noun 20924 Academic
member Noun 17107 Misc
Total Noun 17097 Misc
art Noun 14987 Magazine
feeling noun 12308 Fiction
Employment Noun 10562 Academic
economy Noun 10174 Non-academic
opportunity Noun 10026 misc
wants Noun 8613 Spoken
materials Noun 6691 Non-academic
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
expenditure noun 5408 Misc
injury Noun 4556 Academic
persons Noun 3943 Academic
charity Noun 3627 Newspaper
Cotton Noun 2348 Magazine
virtue noun 1817 Academic
vegetables noun 1750 Magazine
praise noun 1563 Misc
beef Noun 1481 Magazine
supper Noun 1390 Fiction
fragments noun 1317 Academic
creditors Noun 1106 Academic
instinct noun 1057 Fiction
yarn noun 866 Magazine
impulse Noun 713 Fiction
baked Noun 644 Fiction
skins Noun 623 Magazine
Housewife Noun 621 Non-academic
readiness Noun 583 Non-academic
woollen Noun 488 Fiction
stockings Noun 453 Fiction
housekeeping Noun 341 Magazine
stew Noun 325 Fiction
mince noun 295 Spoken
coals Noun 248 Coals
lard noun 84 Magazine
avarice noun 49 Fiction
sundries noun 16 Misc
per Preposition 52333 Non-academic
ensure Verb 10137 Misc
employed verb 5001 Academic
collected verb 3442 Academic
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
saving Verb 2310 misc
gathering verb 1811 Fiction
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
purchased verb 1664 Magazine
knitting Verb 1611 Magazine
laying Verb 1322 Fiction (just)
earning verb 1133 Newspaper then spoken
knit verb 1081 Magazine (by far)
deserves Verb 883 Magazine then newspaper
overlooked Verb 797 Academic
owes verb 631 Academic and newspaper
tending Verb 423 Non-academic
despised Verb 399 Fiction
minced Verb 88 Magazine
obeys Verb 48 Non-academic

 

Notes: 40 nouns, 19 verbs, 14 adjectives, 7 adverbs, 1 conjunction, 1 preposition

 

American 3    
cents 3    
dollars 3    
lb 3    
Oil 3    
soda 3    

 

WJEC Educas Component 2 Section A: ‘Waste not Want not’

I’m presenting my research at the NATE Conference, Saturday 24th June 2017, 09.15 Research slot.

This analysis of the first extract ‘Waste not Want not’ from the WJEC Educas sample assessment material (SAM).  This builds on a series of posts that begin with my quest, then move onto analyse AQA 1 and AQA 2 extracts and then Edexcel 1 and Edexcel 2.

Overall this extract is fitting the patterns seen so far – magazine as a context is slightly up, probably due to the lifestyle nature of the article (food).  The number of Tier Two words is mid-way through the range already seen in previous extracts from AQA and Edexcel.

102 Tier Two words

 

admitted afford agony approximately article
attitude Average balaclava barmy begging
boiled Carton case challenge champions
charities Chucks cluck confessed constantly
context Cover dedicated deposited derives
dinner Dose dumped during earliest
edible Fraction handed heaped hell
however interview interviewer joint landfill
latest Least local lurks manure
memories Merely moral mould mug-full
murderer naturally needy nonsense official
partly Passed passing perfectly plain
portions product Proverb rationing reasonably
recipe recommend recycling regulations report
restaurant Revealed ridicule rummage seconds
serial shameful shovel site slit
smarting Smug speciality steak superiority
swift Temple threatening thrown tons
typical unquestioned waiters wasteful weighs
whites wickedness wilds wonders worship
worth Yolks      

 

Contexts

Fiction and academic texts are again the two most dominant contexts: 28 and 18 respectively.  For the least frequently occurring words (under 1000 in the corpus) fiction is the most frequently occurring largest context(17/46) and then magazine (11/46).  There were 46 words under 1000 frequency (matches the highest score so far – Edexcel extract 1).

 

Places

Places have come up again as useful to know: that a common stereotype about Texas is that everything is bigger there and that Africa and Ethiopia are places we may associate with famines.

 

Measurements

Quite a few measurements in feet, inches, ounces and tons that all need making sense of if the amounts are to be understood.

 

Glossary

I was slightly surprised to find no glossary – not even for ‘proverb’ which I would have thought might need it.  I also think ‘Sunday joint’  might have needed an explanation.  Would be interesting to find out how it is decided what needs a glossary entry.

 

Full data lists below:

 

Tier 2 Words – Alphabetical Order

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
admitted Verb 5459 Newspaper
afford Verb 4347 Spoken then newspaper
agony noun 899 Fiction
approximately Adverb 2759 Academic
article Noun 6501 Academic
attitude Noun 5815 Academic
average Adjective 9651 Misc then academic
balaclava Noun 69 Newspaper then fiction
barmy Adjective 84 Fiction
begging Verb 475 Fiction
boiled Verb 655 Fiction
carton noun 140 Fiction
case Noun 44616 Academic
challenge verb 6656 Newspaper
champions Noun 1462 Newspaper
charities Noun 924 Newspaper
chucks Verb 30 Magazine then spoken
cluck Verb 17 Fiction
confessed verb 698 Fiction
constantly Adverb 2961 Magazine
context Noun 8431 Academic
cover Verb 10763 Magazine
dedicated Adjective 1896 Magazine
deposited verb 713 Non-academic
derives Verb 605 Academic
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
dose Noun 1631 Academic
dumped Verb 851 Newspaper then fiction
during Preposition 42784 Non-academic
earliest Adverb (superlative) 1944 Non-academic
edible Adjective 198 Magazine
fraction Noun 1443 Academic
handed verb 3309 Fiction
heaped verb 197 Fiction
hell noun 5005 Fiction
however Adverb 58967 Academic
interview Noun 4522 Newspaper
interviewer Noun 552 Misc
joint Noun 6822 Non-academic
landfill Noun 231 Magazine
latest Adjective (superlative) 6277 Newspaper
least Determiner 29875 Academic
local Adjective 45548 Academic
lurks Verb 85 Magazine
manure Noun 294 magazine
memories Noun 2498 Fiction
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
moral Adjective 5236 Academic
mould Noun 992 Magazine
mug-full (mugful) noun 2 Fiction (Mug-full 0 /mugful = 2)
murderer Noun 760 Fiction
naturally Adverb 4086 Fiction
needy Adjective 244 Newspaper
nonsense Noun 1527 Fiction
official Adjective 9335 Non-academic
partly Adverb 5519 Academic
passed Verb 10032 Fiction
passing Verb 4588 Fiction
perfectly Adverb 4268 Fiction
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
portions Noun 414 Non-academic
product noun 10875 Misc
Proverb Noun 96 Non-academic
rationing Verb 316 Misc, non-academic
reasonably Adverb 2969 Academic
recipe Noun 975 Magazine
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
recycling Noun 1042 Misc
regulations noun 4160 Misc
report Noun 23257 Non-academic
restaurant Noun 3315 Misc
revealed Verb 5102 Newspaper
ridicule Noun 240 Misc, then fiction
rummage Verb 63 Misc
seconds Noun 4010 Fiction
serial Noun 1073 Non-academic
shameful Adjective 230 Fiction
shovel noun 196 Spoken then fiction
site Noun 9708 Newspaper
slit Verb 372 Fiction
smarting Verb 78 Fiction
smug Adjective 262 Fiction
speciality noun 471 Misc
steak Noun 463 Spoken
superiority noun 743 Academic
swift Adjective 1187 Swift
temple Noun 2024 Misc
threatening Verb 1892 Newspaper
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
tons Noun 1130 Non-academic
typical Adjective 4737 Academic
unquestioned Adjective 92 Academic
waiters noun 233 Fiction
wasteful Adjective 278 Non-academic
weighs verb 307 Magazine
whites Noun 910 Magazine
wickedness Noun 158 Fiction
wilds noun 90 Fiction
wonders Noun 812 magazine
worship Noun 1583 Misc
worth Noun 11878 Newspaper
yolks Noun 97 Magazine

 

Tier 2 Words – BNC Frequency

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
however Adverb 58967 Academic
local Adjective 45548 Academic
case Noun 44616 Academic
during Preposition 42784 Non-academic
least Determiner 29875 Academic
report Noun 23257 Non-academic
worth Noun 11878 Newspaper
product noun 10875 Misc
cover Verb 10763 Magazine
passed Verb 10032 Fiction
site Noun 9708 Newspaper
average Adjective 9651 Misc then academic
official Adjective 9335 Non-academic
context Noun 8431 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
joint Noun 6822 Non-academic
challenge verb 6656 Newspaper
article Noun 6501 Academic
latest Adjective (superlative) 6277 Newspaper
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
attitude Noun 5815 Academic
partly Adverb 5519 Academic
admitted Verb 5459 Newspaper
moral Adjective 5236 Academic
revealed Verb 5102 Newspaper
hell noun 5005 Fiction
typical Adjective 4737 Academic
passing Verb 4588 Fiction
interview Noun 4522 Newspaper
afford Verb 4347 Spoken then newspaper
perfectly Adverb 4268 Fiction
regulations noun 4160 Misc
naturally Adverb 4086 Fiction
seconds Noun 4010 Fiction
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
restaurant Noun 3315 Misc
handed verb 3309 Fiction
reasonably Adverb 2969 Academic
constantly Adverb 2961 Magazine
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
approximately Adverb 2759 Academic
memories Noun 2498 Fiction
temple Noun 2024 Misc
earliest Adverb (superlative) 1944 Non-academic
dedicated Adjective 1896 Magazine
threatening Verb 1892 Newspaper
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
dose Noun 1631 Academic
worship Noun 1583 Misc
nonsense Noun 1527 Fiction
champions Noun 1462 Newspaper
fraction Noun 1443 Academic
swift Adjective 1187 Swift
tons Noun 1130 Non-academic
serial Noun 1073 Non-academic
recycling Noun 1042 Misc
mould Noun 992 Magazine
recipe Noun 975 Magazine
charities Noun 924 Newspaper
whites Noun 910 Magazine
agony noun 899 Fiction
dumped Verb 851 Newspaper then fiction
wonders Noun 812 magazine
murderer Noun 760 Fiction
superiority noun 743 Academic
deposited verb 713 Non-academic
confessed verb 698 Fiction
boiled Verb 655 Fiction
derives Verb 605 Academic
interviewer Noun 552 Misc
begging Verb 475 Fiction
speciality noun 471 Misc
steak Noun 463 Spoken
portions Noun 414 Non-academic
slit Verb 372 Fiction
rationing Verb 316 Misc, non-academic
weighs verb 307 Magazine
manure Noun 294 magazine
wasteful Adjective 278 Non-academic
smug Adjective 262 Fiction
needy Adjective 244 Newspaper
ridicule Noun 240 Misc, then fiction
waiters noun 233 Fiction
landfill Noun 231 Magazine
shameful Adjective 230 Fiction
edible Adjective 198 Magazine
heaped verb 197 Fiction
shovel noun 196 Spoken then fiction
wickedness Noun 158 Fiction
carton noun 140 Fiction
yolks Noun 97 Magazine
Proverb Noun 96 Non-academic
unquestioned Adjective 92 Academic
wilds noun 90 Fiction
lurks Verb 85 Magazine
barmy Adjective 84 Fiction
smarting Verb 78 Fiction
balaclava Noun 69 Newspaper then fiction
rummage Verb 63 Misc
chucks Verb 30 Magazine then spoken
cluck Verb 17 Fiction
mug-full (mugful) noun 2 Fiction (Mug-full 0 /mugful = 2)

 

Notes: 46 words under 1000 frequence: 17 Fiction, 11 Magazine, 5 misc, 4 newspaper, 4 non-academic, 3 academic, 2 spoken.

 

24 nouns, 15 verbs, 7 adjectives

 

Tier 2 Words – Largest Context

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
however Adverb 58967 Academic
local Adjective 45548 Academic
case Noun 44616 Academic
least Determiner 29875 Academic
context Noun 8431 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
article Noun 6501 Academic
attitude Noun 5815 Academic
partly Adverb 5519 Academic
moral Adjective 5236 Academic
typical Adjective 4737 Academic
reasonably Adverb 2969 Academic
approximately Adverb 2759 Academic
dose Noun 1631 Academic
fraction Noun 1443 Academic
superiority noun 743 Academic
derives Verb 605 Academic
unquestioned Adjective 92 Academic
passed Verb 10032 Fiction
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
hell noun 5005 Fiction
passing Verb 4588 Fiction
perfectly Adverb 4268 Fiction
naturally Adverb 4086 Fiction
seconds Noun 4010 Fiction
handed verb 3309 Fiction
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
memories Noun 2498 Fiction
nonsense Noun 1527 Fiction
agony noun 899 Fiction
murderer Noun 760 Fiction
confessed verb 698 Fiction
boiled Verb 655 Fiction
begging Verb 475 Fiction
slit Verb 372 Fiction
smug Adjective 262 Fiction
waiters noun 233 Fiction
shameful Adjective 230 Fiction
heaped verb 197 Fiction
wickedness Noun 158 Fiction
carton noun 140 Fiction
wilds noun 90 Fiction
barmy Adjective 84 Fiction
smarting Verb 78 Fiction
cluck Verb 17 Fiction
mug-full (mugful) noun 2 Fiction (Mug-full 0 /mugful = 2)
cover Verb 10763 Magazine
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
constantly Adverb 2961 Magazine
dedicated Adjective 1896 Magazine
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
mould Noun 992 Magazine
recipe Noun 975 Magazine
whites Noun 910 Magazine
wonders Noun 812 magazine
weighs verb 307 Magazine
manure Noun 294 magazine
landfill Noun 231 Magazine
edible Adjective 198 Magazine
yolks Noun 97 Magazine
lurks Verb 85 Magazine
chucks Verb 30 Magazine then spoken
product noun 10875 Misc
regulations noun 4160 Misc
restaurant Noun 3315 Misc
temple Noun 2024 Misc
worship Noun 1583 Misc
recycling Noun 1042 Misc
interviewer Noun 552 Misc
speciality noun 471 Misc
rummage Verb 63 Misc
average Adjective 9651 Misc then academic
rationing Verb 316 Misc, non-academic
ridicule Noun 240 Misc, then fiction
worth Noun 11878 Newspaper
site Noun 9708 Newspaper
challenge verb 6656 Newspaper
latest Adjective (superlative) 6277 Newspaper
admitted Verb 5459 Newspaper
revealed Verb 5102 Newspaper
interview Noun 4522 Newspaper
threatening Verb 1892 Newspaper
champions Noun 1462 Newspaper
charities Noun 924 Newspaper
needy Adjective 244 Newspaper
dumped Verb 851 Newspaper then fiction
balaclava Noun 69 Newspaper then fiction
during Preposition 42784 Non-academic
report Noun 23257 Non-academic
official Adjective 9335 Non-academic
joint Noun 6822 Non-academic
earliest Adverb (superlative) 1944 Non-academic
tons Noun 1130 Non-academic
serial Noun 1073 Non-academic
deposited verb 713 Non-academic
portions Noun 414 Non-academic
wasteful Adjective 278 Non-academic
Proverb Noun 96 Non-academic
steak Noun 463 Spoken
shovel noun 196 Spoken then fiction
afford Verb 4347 Spoken then newspaper
swift Adjective 1187  

 

Notes: Fiction 28, Academic 18, Magazine 16, Newspaper 13, Misc 12, Non-academic 11, Spoken 3 (missed 1)

 

Tier 2 Words – types of word

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
local Adjective 45548 Academic
average Adjective 9651 Misc then academic
official Adjective 9335 Non-academic
moral Adjective 5236 Academic
typical Adjective 4737 Academic
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
dedicated Adjective 1896 Magazine
swift Adjective 1187 Swift
wasteful Adjective 278 Non-academic
smug Adjective 262 Fiction
needy Adjective 244 Newspaper
shameful Adjective 230 Fiction
edible Adjective 198 Magazine
unquestioned Adjective 92 Academic
barmy Adjective 84 Fiction
latest Adjective (superlative) 6277 Newspaper
however Adverb 58967 Academic
merely Adverb 7372 Academic
partly Adverb 5519 Academic
perfectly Adverb 4268 Fiction
naturally Adverb 4086 Fiction
reasonably Adverb 2969 Academic
constantly Adverb 2961 Magazine
approximately Adverb 2759 Academic
earliest Adverb (superlative) 1944 Non-academic
least Determiner 29875 Academic
case Noun 44616 Academic
report Noun 23257 Non-academic
worth Noun 11878 Newspaper
product noun 10875 Misc
site Noun 9708 Newspaper
context Noun 8431 Academic
joint Noun 6822 Non-academic
article Noun 6501 Academic
dinner Noun 5858 Fiction
attitude Noun 5815 Academic
hell noun 5005 Fiction
interview Noun 4522 Newspaper
regulations noun 4160 Misc
seconds Noun 4010 Fiction
restaurant Noun 3315 Misc
memories Noun 2498 Fiction
temple Noun 2024 Misc
dose Noun 1631 Academic
worship Noun 1583 Misc
nonsense Noun 1527 Fiction
champions Noun 1462 Newspaper
fraction Noun 1443 Academic
tons Noun 1130 Non-academic
serial Noun 1073 Non-academic
recycling Noun 1042 Misc
mould Noun 992 Magazine
recipe Noun 975 Magazine
charities Noun 924 Newspaper
whites Noun 910 Magazine
agony noun 899 Fiction
wonders Noun 812 magazine
murderer Noun 760 Fiction
superiority noun 743 Academic
interviewer Noun 552 Misc
speciality noun 471 Misc
steak Noun 463 Spoken
portions Noun 414 Non-academic
manure Noun 294 magazine
ridicule Noun 240 Misc, then fiction
waiters noun 233 Fiction
landfill Noun 231 Magazine
shovel noun 196 Spoken then fiction
wickedness Noun 158 Fiction
carton noun 140 Fiction
yolks Noun 97 Magazine
Proverb Noun 96 Non-academic
wilds noun 90 Fiction
balaclava Noun 69 Newspaper then fiction
mug-full (mugful) noun 2 Fiction (Mug-full 0 /mugful = 2)
during Preposition 42784 Non-academic
cover Verb 10763 Magazine
passed Verb 10032 Fiction
challenge verb 6656 Newspaper
admitted Verb 5459 Newspaper
revealed Verb 5102 Newspaper
passing Verb 4588 Fiction
afford Verb 4347 Spoken then newspaper
handed verb 3309 Fiction
thrown Verb 2861 Fiction
threatening Verb 1892 Newspaper
recommend Verb 1754 Magazine
dumped Verb 851 Newspaper then fiction
deposited verb 713 Non-academic
confessed verb 698 Fiction
boiled Verb 655 Fiction
derives Verb 605 Academic
begging Verb 475 Fiction
slit Verb 372 Fiction
rationing Verb 316 Misc, non-academic
weighs verb 307 Magazine
heaped verb 197 Fiction
lurks Verb 85 Magazine
smarting Verb 78 Fiction
rummage Verb 63 Misc
chucks Verb 30 Magazine then spoken
cluck Verb 17 Fiction

 

Notes: Nouns 49, Verbs 26, Adjectives 16, Adverbs 9

 

Tier 3 words

 

£400      
£50      
30      
50      
500000      
6ft      
6in      
70      
72oz      
Africa      
Americans      
British      
Ethiopian      
Texan      
Texas    

Edexcel Paper 2 Text 2: Breaking Codes

I’m presenting my research at the NATE Conference, Saturday 24th June 2017, 09.15 Research slot.

This analysis of Text 2 from the sample assessment material (SAM) for the Edexcel English language GCSE specification builds on my analysis of the SAM for Edexcel Paper 2 Text 1, AQA Source A and Source B.

Tier Two words

73 Tier Two words

 

     
armed assume babble background basis
break breaking brief cheer combinations
complex concealing confidence confirmed converted
convinced crumpled currency describes dictionaries
discovered during elementary embarking enemy
enough extract frequency hardly increasingly
individual information ink innocent intelligence
interest invisible judgement lack letters
marginally message millions pairs patience
permutation phrase plain proceeded repetition
responsible resting secure self-esteem set
showed slightest slogging solved stake
stammer step substitution success suitable
supervisor task tedious text tricky
unbreakable uncover uphill    

 

There were 229 Tier Two words overall in the two Edexcel texts compared to 136 in the two AQA extracts.

There is very little overlap of Tier Two words across the four texts so far: only one word (‘increasingly’) appears in three (out of four) extracts; eleven appear in two of the extracts (assignment, attention, conceal[ing], crumpled, information, intelligence, interview, received, text, typical, whether).

Low frequency words (in the corpus)

The contexts for the least frequently occurring words in the British National Corpus (BNC) for this extract follow a similar pattern to the AQA texts.  There are 23 words that had less than 1000 frequency, very similar numbers to the two AQA extracts (25 and 22 words), but fewer than the other Edexcel text (46).  Fiction and academic texts were, again, the most frequent sources for these unusual words (8/23 and 7/23 respectively).

Contexts

Over the four extracts analysed so far academic texts feature as an important context for Tier Two words.  They are very dominant in this text (24/73 – of which 14 are nouns).  Fiction was next in line (15/73 – of which 7 are adjectives).  The important question here is just how much access students have to academic writing at secondary school.  I’m assuming text books would be the most likely source – the question is how much reading from text books secondary school students actually do.

Other useful knowledge

The Tier Three words are linguistic (consonants, indicators, linguist), related to coding (code(s), enciphered – which is in the glossary, Playfair) and to do with World War 2 (government-in-exile, Dutch, German, Netherlands).  Knowledge of places has come up as useful before: Lisbon, Czech, Africa, the Middle East in the first Edexcel text and the distance between Yorkshire and Islington in the second AQA text.

Onwards …

Next stop the WJEC/Educas SAMS.  It will be interesting to see if these texts fit into the average number of Tier 2 words appearing (around 70), if academic texts remain an important context and if knowledge of places is useful again …

 

Tier 2 Words – Alphabetical Order

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
armed Verb 4526 Non-academic
assume Verb 4004 Academic
babble Noun 103 Fiction
background Noun 5997 Academic
basis Noun 14228 Academic
break Verb 8976 Newspaper
breaking Verb 3131 Newspaper
brief Adjective 5416 Fiction
cheer Noun 724 Fiction
combinations Noun 940 Academic
complex Adjective 9294 Academic
concealing Verb 230 Fiction
confidence Noun 6766 Newspaper
confirmed Verb 4758 Newspaper
converted Verb 2258 Newspaper/non-academic
convinced Verb 3128 Newspaper
crumpled Verb 379 Fiction
currency Noun 3329 Non-academic
describes Verb 2599 Academic
dictionaries Noun 394 Academic
discovered Verb 6124 newspaper
during preposition 42784 Non-academic
elementary Adjective 699 Non-academic
embarking Verb 302 Misc
enemy Noun 3127 Non-academic
enough Adjective 30765 Fiction
extract Noun 1421 Academic
frequency Noun 2775 Academic
hardly Adverb 8323 Fiction
increasingly Adverb 6494 Academic
individual Adjective 18797 Academic
information Noun 37833 Misc
ink Noun 786 Magazine
innocent Adjectives 2440 Fiction
Intelligence Proper noun 3344 Non-academic
interest Verb 26772 Misc
invisible Adjective 1188 Fiction
judgement Noun 2421 Academic
lack Noun 9751 Academic
letters Noun 7606 Magazine
marginally Adverb 431 Academic
message Noun 6557 Misc/newspaper
millions Noun 2578 Newspaper
pairs Noun 2075 Academic
patience Noun 1144 Fiction
permutation Noun 29 Academic
phrase Noun 2995 Academic
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
proceeded Verb 1020 Non-academic
repetition Noun 882 Academic
responsible Adjective 9177 Non-academic/academic
resting Verb 1166 Fiction
Secure Adjective 4501 Non-academic/academic
self-esteem Noun 432 Non-academic/academic
set Verb 43431 Magazine, newspaper, misc
showed Verb 10294 Academic
slightest Adjective 844 Fiction
slogging Verb 30 Magazine/newspaper
solved Verb 1125 Academic
stake Noun 2072 Newspaper
stammer Verb 67 Fiction
step Noun 8412 Magazine/fiction
substitution Adjective 677 Academic
success Noun 13067 Newspaper/misc
suitable Adjective 5953 Misc/magazine
supervisor Noun 707 Misc
task Noun 8917 Academic
tedious Adjective 499 Fiction/magazine
text Noun 6865 Academic
tricky Adjective 627 Magazine
unbreakable Adjective 57 Fiction
uncover Verb 240 Academic
uphill adjective 351 Magazine

 

Tier 2 Words – in order of BNC frequency

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
set Verb 43431 Magazine, newspaper, misc
during preposition 42784 Non-academic
information Noun 37833 Misc
enough Adjective 30765 Fiction
interest Verb 26772 Misc
individual Adjective 18797 Academic
basis Noun 14228 Academic
success Noun 13067 Newspaper/misc
showed Verb 10294 Academic
lack Noun 9751 Academic
complex Adjective 9294 Academic
responsible Adjective 9177 Non-academic/academic
break Verb 8976 newspaper
task Noun 8917 Academic
step Noun 8412 Magazine/fiction
hardly Adverb 8323 Fiction
letters Noun 7606 Magazine
text Noun 6865 Academic
confidence Noun 6766 Newspaper
message Noun 6557 Misc/newspaper
increasingly Adverb 6494 Academic
discovered Verb 6124 newspaper
background Noun 5997 Academic
suitable Adjective 5953 Misc/magazine
brief Adjective 5416 Fiction
confirmed Verb 4758 Newspaper
armed Verb 4526 Non-academic
Secure Adjective 4501 Non-academic/academic
assume Verb 4004 Academic
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
Intelligence Proper noun 3344 Non-academic
currency Noun 3329 Non-academic
breaking Verb 3131 Newspaper
convinced Verb 3128 Newspaper
enemy Noun 3127 Non-academic
phrase Noun 2995 Academic
frequency Noun 2775 Academic
describes Verb 2599 Academic
millions Noun 2578 Newspaper
innocent Adjectives 2440 Fiction
judgement Noun 2421 Academic
converted Verb 2258 Newspaper/non-academic
pairs Noun 2075 Academic
stake Noun 2072 Newspaper
extract Noun 1421 Academic
invisible Adjective 1188 Fiction
resting Verb 1166 Fiction
patience Noun 1144 Fiction
solved Verb 1125 Academic
proceeded Verb 1020 Non-academic
combinations Noun 940 Academic
repetition Noun 882 Academic
slightest Adjective 844 Fiction
ink Noun 786 Magazine
cheer Noun 724 Fiction
supervisor Noun 707 Misc
elementary Adjective 699 Non-academic
substitution Adjective 677 Academic
tricky Adjective 627 Magazine
tedious Adjective 499 Fiction/magazine
self-esteem Noun 432 Non-academic/academic
marginally Adverb 431 Academic
dictionaries Noun 394 Academic
crumpled Verb 379 Fiction
uphill adjective 351 Magazine
embarking Verb 302 Misc
uncover Verb 240 Academic
concealing Verb 230 Fiction
babble Noun 103 Fiction
stammer Verb 67 Fiction
unbreakable Adjective 57 Fiction
slogging Verb 30 Magazine/newspaper
permutation Noun 29 Academic

Notes:

  • 23 words under 1000 frequency: 9/23 nouns; 7/23 adjectives; 6/23 verbs; 1 adverb
  • 7/23 Academic (4 nouns); 8/23 Fiction (3 verbs, 3 adjectives, 2 nouns); 4/23 Magazine; 2/23 Misc; 2/23 non-academic
  • Edexcel Text 1: 46 words under 1000 frequency
  • AQA Text 1: 25 words under 1000 frequency
  • AQA Text 2: 22 words under 1000 frequency

Tier 2 words – in order of largest context

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
Complex Adjective 9294 Academic
Individual Adjective 18797 Academic
Substitution Adjective 677 Academic
Increasingly Adverb 6494 Academic
Marginally Adverb 431 Academic
Background Noun 5997 Academic
Basis Noun 14228 Academic
Combinations Noun 940 Academic
Dictionaries Noun 394 Academic
Extract Noun 1421 Academic
Frequency Noun 2775 Academic
Judgement Noun 2421 Academic
Lack Noun 9751 Academic
Pairs Noun 2075 Academic
Permutation Noun 29 Academic
Phrase Noun 2995 Academic
Repetition Noun 882 Academic
Task Noun 8917 Academic
Text Noun 6865 Academic
Assume Verb 4004 Academic
Describes Verb 2599 Academic
Showed Verb 10294 Academic
Solved Verb 1125 Academic
Uncover Verb 240 Academic
Brief Adjective 5416 Fiction
Enough Adjective 30765 Fiction
Invisible Adjective 1188 Fiction
Slightest Adjective 844 Fiction
Unbreakable Adjective 57 Fiction
Innocent Adjective 2440 Fiction
Hardly Adverb 8323 Fiction
Babble Noun 103 Fiction
Cheer Noun 724 Fiction
Patience Noun 1144 Fiction
Concealing Verb 230 Fiction
Crumpled Verb 379 Fiction
Resting Verb 1166 Fiction
Stammer Verb 67 Fiction
Tedious Adjective 499 Fiction/magazine
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
tricky Adjective 627 Magazine
uphill adjective 351 Magazine
ink Noun 786 Magazine
letters Noun 7606 Magazine
set Verb 43431 Magazine, newspaper, misc
step Noun 8412 Magazine/fiction
slogging Verb 30 Magazine/newspaper
information Noun 37833 Misc
supervisor Noun 707 Misc
embarking Verb 302 Misc
interest Verb 26772 Misc
suitable Adjective 5953 Misc/magazine
message Noun 6557 Misc/newspaper
confidence Noun 6766 Newspaper
millions Noun 2578 Newspaper
stake Noun 2072 Newspaper
break Verb 8976 Newspaper
breaking Verb 3131 Newspaper
confirmed Verb 4758 Newspaper
convinced Verb 3128 Newspaper
discovered Verb 6124 Newspaper
success Noun 13067 Newspaper/misc
converted Verb 2258 Newspaper/non-academic
elementary Adjective 699 Non-academic
currency Noun 3329 Non-academic
enemy Noun 3127 Non-academic
during preposition 42784 Non-academic
Intelligence Proper noun 3344 Non-academic
armed Verb 4526 Non-academic
proceeded Verb 1020 Non-academic
responsible Adjective 9177 Non-academic/academic
Secure Adjective 4501 Non-academic/academic
self-esteem Noun 432 Non-academic/academic

Notes: 24 Academic (14 nouns); 15 Fiction (7 adjectives); 10 newspaper; 10 non-academic; 8 magazine; 6 miscellaneous

Tier 2 Words – in order or type of word

Tier 2 Word Type of word – in context British National Corpus Frequency Largest context
brief Adjective 5416 Fiction
complex Adjective 9294 Academic
elementary Adjective 699 Non-academic
enough Adjective 30765 Fiction
individual Adjective 18797 Academic
invisible Adjective 1188 Fiction
plain Adjective 4002 Magazine
responsible Adjective 9177 Non-academic/academic
Secure Adjective 4501 Non-academic/academic
slightest Adjective 844 Fiction
substitution Adjective 677 Academic
suitable Adjective 5953 Misc/magazine
tedious Adjective 499 Fiction/magazine
tricky Adjective 627 Magazine
unbreakable Adjective 57 Fiction
uphill adjective 351 Magazine
innocent Adjectives 2440 Fiction
hardly Adverb 8323 Fiction
increasingly Adverb 6494 Academic
marginally Adverb 431 Academic
babble Noun 103 Fiction
background Noun 5997 Academic
basis Noun 14228 Academic
cheer Noun 724 Fiction
combinations Noun 940 Academic
confidence Noun 6766 Newspaper
currency Noun 3329 Non-academic
dictionaries Noun 394 Academic
enemy Noun 3127 Non-academic
extract Noun 1421 Academic
frequency Noun 2775 Academic
information Noun 37833 Misc
Ink Noun 786 Magazine
judgement Noun 2421 Academic
Lack Noun 9751 Academic
Letters Noun 7606 Magazine
message Noun 6557 Misc/newspaper
millions Noun 2578 Newspaper
Pairs Noun 2075 Academic
patience Noun 1144 Fiction
permutation Noun 29 Academic
phrase Noun 2995 Academic
repetition Noun 882 Academic
self-esteem Noun 432 Non-academic/academic
Stake Noun 2072 Newspaper
Step Noun 8412 Magazine/fiction
success Noun 13067 Newspaper/misc
supervisor Noun 707 Misc
Task Noun 8917 Academic
Text Noun 6865 Academic
During preposition 42784 Non-academic
Intelligence Proper noun 3344 Non-academic
Armed Verb 4526 Non-academic
assume Verb 4004 Academic
Break Verb 8976 newspaper
breaking Verb 3131 Newspaper
concealing Verb 230 Fiction
confirmed Verb 4758 Newspaper
converted Verb 2258 Newspaper/non-academic
convinced Verb 3128 Newspaper
crumpled Verb 379 Fiction
describes Verb 2599 Academic
discovered Verb 6124 newspaper
embarking Verb 302 Misc
interest Verb 26772 Misc
proceeded Verb 1020 Non-academic
Resting Verb 1166 Fiction
Set Verb 43431 Magazine, newspaper, misc
showed Verb 10294 Academic
slogging Verb 30 Magazine/newspaper
Solved Verb 1125 Academic
stammer Verb 67 Fiction
uncover Verb 240 Academic

Notes: 30 nouns; 21 Verbs; 17 adjectives; 3 adverbs

Tier Three Words

code 3    
codes 3    
consonants 3    
enciphered 3    
government-in-exile 3    
guilders 3    
indicators 3    
linguist 3    
Playfair 3    
Dutch 3    
German 3    
Netherlands 3    

 

Edexcel Paper 2 Text 1: Recruitment drive MI6 – vocabulary

This analysis of Text 1 from the sample assessment material (SAM) for the Edexcel English language GCSE specification builds on my analysis of the SAM for AQA Source A and Source B.

 

Overall this text seems more challenging, in terms of the number of Tier Two and specialist words than either of the AQA SAM texts, although I’m not suggesting that this would mean it was a more difficult exam to pass as I’m sure scores would be adjusted if/when grade boundaries were calculated.

 

Tier Two words

 

There are about double the amount of Tier Two words compared to either of the AQA SAM texts.

 

156 Tier Two words

 

 

 

 

absorbing

affair

amazed

anniversary

applicant

application

applying

article

assessment

assignments

attend

attracted

attractive

based

bluestockings

British

business

businessman

Cambridge

candidate

cast

celebrates

per cent

China

City

clandestine

clink

cloisters

colleagues

College

Conceal

concern

conference

considered

continues

conventional

cosmopolitan

crave

crowd

crumpets

Crumpled

culture

curious

dangerous

degree

Demand

disappointing

displays

drive

educated

Elegant

encounter

ethnic

faced

fast–forward

Favoured

following

foreign

form

forties

Gentle

historian

housekeeping

hurdle

increasingly

information

informed

initially

insight

intelligence

Intended

international

interrogation

interview

Invited

Inviting

ladies

latest

lifestyle

limelight

Linen

Londoner

managed

midday

midnight

Military

minorities

modern

motivated

Net

Nursery

oak-panelled

occasionally

officer

Officers

Official

online

paramount

patrician

personal

popularly

potential

presence

press

problem-solvers

process

promised

promising

proved

Psst

rare

received

recent

recruit

recruiting

recruitment

relationships

remainder

satisfactory

Scatter

selected

selection

senior

service

Serving

shadows

sizing

smart

softly-spoken

Spend

spotted

spotter

spy

staff

State

stimulate

study

stylish

subjected

Subtle

successful

suit

supply

talent

Target

term

terrorism

text

threat

Tiptoed

trust

typical

undergraduate

university

venturing

vetting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What I am most surprised about is the lack of repetition of Tier Two words across all three texts I’ve analysed so far.  I’ve only identified seven (assignment, attention, increasingly, interview, received, typical, whether) that appear in two out of the three texts and none appear in all three.  This highlights the enormous range of vocabulary that is needed for comprehension of unseen texts.

 

I’ve ranked the Tier Two words by frequency and most frequent contexts in the British National Corpus (BNC).  The full lists are reproduced at the end of this post in the appendices.

 

Contexts

 

No surprises in the BNC contexts that occurred: newspapers and academic texts were about equal in their frequency for sources of Tier Two words (35/156 and 34/156 respectively); fiction (22/156); magazines (21/156); misc (21/156) and non-academic (18/156).

 

Nouns, verbs and fiction

 

It seems that fiction was again an important source for the least frequently occurring words in the BNC.  Of the 46 words that came in at under 1000 occurrences the largest group were nouns (22).  The most frequent sources for these nouns were fiction (7) and newspapers (7).  Verbs were the next group (12) and again fiction (5) was just the most frequent source.  It seems that fiction is an important source for unusual verbs – a word class that is maybe worth targeting when we are teaching literature or any fiction texts.

 

Glossary

 

The glossary, like the one in the AQA text on Cotherstone Academy, gives only very literal explanations rather than anything nuanced or helpful with connotations of the words.  I don’t think we can rely on the glossaries to help students an awful lot.

 

To give the explanation that ‘cloisters’ are ‘open areas surrounded by walkways’ doesn’t really help to convey the elite or traditional atmosphere of the buildings of Oxbridge that I believe the writer mean to allude to.  Oxford and Cambridge are ‘the oldest universities in the United Kingdom’ but that is not why MI6 want their graduates – nothing of their reputation for prestige or privilege is suggested by the glossary.  ‘Bluestocking’ is usually an offensive term, used to deride academic or intellectual women for their lack of femininity, again this fuller meaning is missing from the glossary. (I won’t even comment on the implicit sexism of the article that describes women as either ‘bluestockings’ or ‘the kind who know what to do with scatter cushions’ – it slightly beggars belief for an article written in 2009!)

 

Other useful knowledge

 

I think a very particular world is alluded to in the text that requires readers to understand some quite specialist vocabulary (Tier Three words): Cabinet Office, Military attaché, the City, Cosmopolitan, Marie Claire, Good Housekeeping, Tate Modern.  As well as references to countries and cites and nationalities: Lisbon, Czech, Africa, the Middle East.  It is not every 16 year old who would be familiar with this milieu.

 

The next post will be text 2 of this Edexcel SAM.

 

Appendices

 

Tier 2 words – Alphabetical Order:

 

Tier 2 Word

Type of word – in context

British National Corpus Frequency

Largest context

Absorbing

verb

412

Magazine

Affair

noun

3073

Newspaper then fiction

Amazed

Verb

948

fiction

Anniversary

noun

1995

Newspaper

Applicant

noun

1227

Academic

Application

noun

9787

Academic

Applying

verb

1944

Academic

Article

Noun

6501

Academic

Assessment

Noun

6668

Academic

Assignments

Noun

595

Misc

Attend

Verb

3497

Misc then newspaper

Attracted

verb

2772

Non-academic

Attractive

Adjective

4999

Misc and magazine

Based

verb

18223

Academic

bluestockings3

noun

2

Newspaper then misc – bluestocking 6 – 4 fiction, 2 misc

British

Noun

34984

Newspaper

Business

noun

34715

Misc

businessman;

noun

931

Newspaper

Cambridge

Proper noun

3574

Non-academic

Candidate

Noun

3742

Newspaper

Cast

verb

4103

Magazine

Celebrates

verb

293

Newspaper

Per cent

Adverb

37272

(had to use collocate as 2 word so don’t have genre – 2889 Spoken for percent one word

china

noun

5207

Non-academic

City

noun

22393

Newspaper

clandestine

Adjective

175

Non-academic

clink

Verb

53

Fiction

cloisters1

noun

94

misc

Colleagues

Noun

5359

Spoken then newspaper

college

Noun

10093

Misc

conceal

Verb

649

Fiction

concern

Noun

10120

Academic

conference

Noun

9630

Non-academic

considered

Verb

13160

Academic

Continues

Verb

3894

Magazine then newspaper

conventional

Adjective

3829

Academic

crave

Verb

103

Magazine

crowd

Noun

4114

Newspaper then fiction

crumpets

Noun

31

Fiction then spoken

crumpled

Adjective

379

Fiction

culture

Noun

8413

Academic

curious

adjective

2077

Fiction

dangerous

Adjective

5576

Newspaper then fiction

degree

Noun

9769

Academic

demand

Noun

10775

Misc

disappointing

Adjective

980

Newspaper

displays

Noun

1700

Magazine

drive

Noun

8548

Newspaper then fiction

educated

Adjective

1968

Misc

elegant

Adjective

1706

Magazine then fiction

encounter

Noun

1648

Newspaper

ethnic

Adjective

2238

Non-academic

Faced

verb

4355

Newspaper

Fast–forward

Noun

12

Magazine, fiction and newspaper

favoured

Adjective

1937

Non-academic

following

Preposition

26046

Non-academic then misc

foreign

Adjective

15399

Non-academic

form

Noun

33790

Academic

forties

Noun (plural)

502

Spoken then fiction

gentle

adjective

2736

Fiction

historian

noun

1323

Academic

Housekeeping

Noun

341

Magazine – the word not the name

hurdle

Noun

559

Newspaper

increasingly

adverb

6494

Academic

information

Noun

37833

Misc then academic

informed

Verb

3745

Academic

initially

Adverb

3766

Academic

insight

Noun

1397

Academic

intelligence

Noun

3344

Non-academic

intended

Verb

7408

Academic

international

Adjective

21689

Newspaper

interrogation

Noun

341

Fiction

interview

Noun

4522

Newspaper (just, then academic and magazine)

invited

Verb

4179

Misc

inviting

Verb

781

Fiction

ladies

noun

3059

Fiction

latest

Noun

6277

Newspaper

lifestyle

noun

1082

Magazine

limelight

Noun

208

Newspaper then magazine

linen

Noun

900

Fiction

Londoner

Proper noun

130

Newspaper

managed

Verb

7238

Fiction

midday

Noun

500

Fiction

midnight

Noun

1771

Fiction

military

Adjective

10924

Non-academic

minorities

Noun

889

Non-academic

modern

adjective

12823

Academic then magazine

Motivated

Adjective

941

Academic

net

Noun

6554

Non-academic

nursery

Noun

1737

Newspaper

oak-panelled

Adjective

20

Fiction

Occasionally

Adverb

3823

Magazine

officer

Noun

8871

Newspaper

officers

Noun

8557

Newspaper

official

adjective

9335

Non-academic

online

adjective

567

Misc

paramount

adjective

592

Academic

patrician

noun

139

Fiction then academic

personal

Adjective

17122

Non-academic

popularly

Adverb

243

Non-academic

potential

adjective

11020

Academic

presence

noun

7770

Academic

press

Noun

12529

Misc then magazine 644 for press conference (newspaper)

problem-solvers

Noun

6

Non-academic – 44 for ‘problem solver’misc, 8 for problem solvers’ misc.

process

noun

22227

Academic

promised

Verb

4029

Fiction then newspaper

promising

Adjective

1492

Newspaper

proved

Verb

6725

Newspaper

Psst!

Interjection

20

Fiction

rare

Adjective

4521

Magazine

received

Verb

12882

Misc

recent

Adjective

15472

Magazine

recruit

Noun

938

Newspaper

recruiting

Verb

598

Misc

recruitment

noun

1565

Misc

relationships

Noun

5879

Academic

remainder

Noun

1669

Academic

satisfactory

Adjective

2151

Academic

scatter

noun

307

Magazine then fiction

selected

Verb

4155

Magazine then academic

selection

Noun

5914

Magazine

senior

Adjective

8115

Newspaper

service

noun

29976

Misc

serving

Verb

2716

Newspaper then misc

shadows

Noun

1437

Fiction

sizing

Verb

50

Magazine. 14  ‘sizing up’ 7 of which are fiction

smart

Adjective

1711

Magazine then fiction

softly-spoken

adjective

7

Magazine.  30 ‘softly spoken’ 17 of which are fiction

spend

Verb

7720

Spoken then newspaper

spotted

Verb

1559

Newspaper

spotter

noun

32

Newspaper

spy

noun

667

Fiction

staff

Noun

22281

Misc and newspaper

state

Noun

37759

Academic

stimulate

Verb

1023

Academic and non-academic (even)

study

Noun

21763

Academic

stylish

Adjective

481

Magazine

subjected

Verb

1238

Academic

subtle

Adjective

1752

Magazine

successful

Adjective

10556

Misc

suit

Noun

4767

Fiction

supply

Verb

9413

Misc

talent

Noun

2003

Newspaper

target

Noun

6607

Misc

term

Noun

12223

Academic

terrorism

Noun

667

Newspaper

text

Noun

6865

Academic

threat

Noun

5490

Newspaper

tiptoed

Verb

96

Fiction

trust

Noun

9909

Newspaper

typical

Adjective

4737

Academic

undergraduate

Noun

617

Misc

university

Noun

16197

Non-academic

venturing

Verb

118

Magazine

vetting

verb

108

newspapers

 

 Tier 2 Words – in order of BNC frequency

 

Tier 2 Word

Type of word – in context

British National Corpus Frequency

Largest context

information

Noun

37833

Misc then academic

state

Noun

37759

Academic

Per cent

Adverb

37272

(had to use collocate as 2 word so don’t have genre – 2889 Spoken for percent one word

British

Noun

34984

Newspaper

business

noun

34715

Misc

form

Noun

33790

Academic

service

noun

29976

Misc

following

Preposition

26046

Non-academic then misc

City

noun

22393

Newspaper

staff

Noun

22281

Misc and newspaper

process

noun

22227

Academic

study

Noun

21763

Academic

international

Adjective

21689

Newspaper

Based

verb

18223

Academic

personal

Adjective

17122

Non-academic

university

Noun

16197

Non-academic

recent

Adjective

15472

Magazine

foreign

Adjective

15399

Non-academic

considered

Verb

13160

Academic

received

Verb

12882

Misc

modern

adjective

12823

Academic then magazine

press

Noun

12529

Misc then magazine 644 for press conference (newspaper)

term

Noun

12223

Academic

potential

adjective

11020

Academic

military

Adjective

10924

Non-academic

demand

Noun

10775

Misc

successful

Adjective

10556

Misc

concern

Noun

10120

Academic

college

Noun

10093

Misc

trust

Noun

9909

Newspaper

application

noun

9787

Academic

degree

Noun

9769

Academic

conference

Noun

9630

Non-academic

supply

Verb

9413

Misc

official

adjective

9335

Non-academic

officer

Noun

8871

Newspaper

officers

Noun

8557

Newspaper

drive

Noun

8548

Newspaper then fiction

culture

Noun

8413

Academic

senior

Adjective

8115

Newspaper

presence

noun

7770

Academic

spend

Verb

7720

Spoken then newspaper

intended

Verb

7408

Academic

managed

Verb

7238

Fiction

text

Noun

6865

Academic

proved

Verb

6725

Newspaper

assessment

Noun

6668

Academic

target

Noun

6607

Misc

net

Noun

6554

Non-academic

article

Noun

6501

Academic

increasingly

adverb

6494

Academic

latest

Noun

6277

Newspaper

selection

Noun

5914

Magazine

relationships

Noun

5879

Academic

dangerous

Adjective

5576

Newspaper then fiction

threat

Noun

5490

Newspaper

Colleagues

Noun

5359

Spoken then newspaper

china

noun

5207

Non-academic

attractive

Adjective

4999

Misc and magazine

suit

Noun

4767

Fiction

typical

Adjective

4737

Academic

interview

Noun

4522

Newspaper (just, then academic and magazine)

rare

Adjective

4521

Magazine

Faced

verb

4355

Newspaper

invited

Verb

4179

Misc

selected

Verb

4155

Magazine then academic

crowd

Noun

4114

Newspaper then fiction

cast

verb

4103

Magazine

promised

Verb

4029

Fiction then newspaper

Continues

Verb

3894

Magazine then newspaper

conventional

Adjective

3829

Academic

Occasionally

Adverb

3823

Magazine

initially

Adverb

3766

Academic

informed

Verb

3745

Academic

candidate

Noun

3742

Newspaper

Cambridge

Proper noun

3574

Non-academic

attend

Verb

3497

Misc then newspaper

intelligence

Noun

3344

Non-academic

affair

noun

3073

Newspaper then fiction

ladies

noun

3059

Fiction

attracted

verb

2772

Non-academic

gentle

adjective

2736

Fiction

serving

Verb

2716

Newspaper then misc

ethnic

Adjective

2238

Non-academic

satisfactory

Adjective

2151

Academic

curious

adjective

2077

Fiction

talent

Noun

2003

Newspaper

anniversary

noun

1995

Newspaper

educated

Adjective

1968

Misc

applying

verb

1944

Academic

favoured

Adjective

1937

Non-academic

midnight

Noun

1771

Fiction

subtle

Adjective

1752

Magazine

nursery

Noun

1737

Newspaper

smart

Adjective

1711

Magazine then fiction

elegant

Adjective

1706

Magazine then fiction

displays

Noun

1700

Magazine

remainder

Noun

1669

Academic

encounter

Noun

1648

Newspaper

recruitment

noun

1565

Misc

spotted

Verb

1559

Newspaper

promising

Adjective

1492

Newspaper

shadows

Noun

1437

Fiction

insight

Noun

1397

Academic

historian

noun

1323

Academic

subjected

Verb

1238

Academic

applicant

noun

1227

Academic

lifestyle

noun

1082

Magazine

stimulate

Verb

1023

Academic and non-academic (even)

disappointing

Adjective

980

Newspaper

amazed

Verb

948

fiction

Motivated

Adjective

941

Academic

recruit

Noun

938

Newspaper

businessman;

noun

931

Newspaper

linen

Noun

900

Fiction

minorities

Noun

889

Non-academic

inviting

Verb

781

Fiction

spy

noun

667

Fiction

terrorism

Noun

667

Newspaper

conceal

Verb

649

Fiction

undergraduate

Noun

617

Misc

recruiting

Verb

598

Misc

assignments

Noun

595

Misc

paramount

adjective

592

Academic

online

adjective

567

Misc

hurdle

Noun

559

Newspaper

forties

Noun (plural)

502

Spoken then fiction

midday

Noun

500

Fiction

stylish

Adjective

481

Magazine

absorbing

verb

412

Magazine

crumpled

Adjective

379

Fiction

housekeeping

Noun

341

Magazine – the word not the name

interrogation

Noun

341

Fiction

scatter

noun

307

Magazine then fiction

celebrates

verb

293

Newspaper

popularly

Adverb

243

Non-academic

limelight

Noun

208

Newspaper then magazine

clandestine

Adjective

175

Non-academic

patrician

noun

139

Fiction then academic

Londoner

Proper noun

130

Newspaper

venturing

Verb

118

Magazine

vetting

verb

108

newspapers

crave

Verb

103

Magazine

tiptoed

Verb

96

Fiction

cloisters1

noun

94

misc

clink

Verb

53

Fiction

sizing

Verb

50

Magazine. 14  ‘sizing up’ 7 of which are fiction

spotter

noun

32

Newspaper

crumpets

Noun

31

Fiction then spoken

oak-panelled

Adjective

20

Fiction

Psst!

Interjection

20

Fiction

fast–forward

Noun

12

Magazine, fiction and newspaper

softly-spoken

adjective

7

Magazine.  30 ‘softly spoken’ 17 of which are fiction

problem-solvers

Noun

6

Non-academic – 44 for ‘problem solver’misc, 8 for problem solvers’ misc.

Bluestockings

noun

2

Newspaper then misc – bluestocking 6 – 4 fiction, 2 misc

 

 Tier 2 words – in order of largest context

 

Tier 2 Word

Type of word – in context

British National Corpus Frequency

Largest context

Per cent

Adverb

37272

(had to use collocate as 2 word so don’t have genre – 2889 Spoken for percent one word

paramount

adjective

592

Academic

Motivated

Adjective

941

Academic

applicant

noun

1227

Academic

subjected

Verb

1238

Academic

historian

noun

1323

Academic

insight

Noun

1397

Academic

remainder

Noun

1669

Academic

applying

verb

1944

Academic

satisfactory

Adjective

2151

Academic

informed

Verb

3745

Academic

initially

Adverb

3766

Academic

conventional

Adjective

3829

Academic

typical

Adjective

4737

Academic

relationships

Noun

5879

Academic

increasingly

adverb

6494

Academic

article

Noun

6501

Academic

assessment

Noun

6668

Academic

text

Noun

6865

Academic

intended

Verb

7408

Academic

presence

noun

7770

Academic

culture

Noun

8413

Academic

degree

Noun

9769

Academic

application

noun

9787

Academic

concern

Noun

10120

Academic

potential

adjective

11020

Academic

term

Noun

12223

Academic

considered

Verb

13160

Academic

Based

verb

18223

Academic

study

Noun

21763

Academic

process

noun

22227

Academic

form

Noun

33790

Academic

state

Noun

37759

Academic

stimulate

Verb

1023

Academic and non-academic (even)

modern

adjective

12823

Academic then magazine

oak-panelled

Adjective

20

Fiction

Psst!

Interjection

20

Fiction

clink

Verb

53

Fiction

tiptoed

Verb

96

Fiction

interrogation

Noun

341

Fiction

crumpled

Adjective

379

Fiction

midday

Noun

500

Fiction

conceal

Verb

649

Fiction

spy

noun

667

Fiction

inviting

Verb

781

Fiction

linen

Noun

900

Fiction

amazed

Verb

948

fiction

shadows

Noun

1437

Fiction

midnight

Noun

1771

Fiction

curious

adjective

2077

Fiction

gentle

adjective

2736

Fiction

ladies

noun

3059

Fiction

suit

Noun

4767

Fiction

managed

Verb

7238

Fiction

patrician

noun

139

Fiction then academic

promised

Verb

4029

Fiction then newspaper

crumpets

Noun

31

Fiction then spoken

crave

Verb

103

Magazine

venturing

Verb

118

Magazine

absorbing

verb

412

Magazine

stylish

Adjective

481

Magazine

lifestyle

noun

1082

Magazine

displays

Noun

1700

Magazine

subtle

Adjective

1752

Magazine

Occasionally

Adverb

3823

Magazine

cast

verb

4103

Magazine

rare

Adjective

4521

Magazine

selection

Noun

5914

Magazine

recent

Adjective

15472

Magazine

Housekeeping

Noun

341

Magazine – the word not the name

selected

Verb

4155

Magazine then academic

scatter

noun

307

Magazine then fiction

elegant

Adjective

1706

Magazine then fiction

smart

Adjective

1711

Magazine then fiction

Continues

Verb

3894

Magazine then newspaper

Fast–forward

Noun

12

Magazine, fiction and newspaper

softly-spoken

adjective

7

Magazine.  30 ‘softly spoken’ 17 of which are fiction

sizing

Verb

50

Magazine. 14  ‘sizing up’ 7 of which are fiction

cloisters1

noun

94

misc

online

adjective

567

Misc

assignments

Noun

595

Misc

recruiting

Verb

598

Misc

undergraduate

Noun

617

Misc

recruitment

noun

1565

Misc

educated

Adjective

1968

Misc

invited

Verb

4179

Misc

target

Noun

6607

Misc

supply

Verb

9413

Misc

college

Noun

10093

Misc

successful

Adjective

10556

Misc

demand

Noun

10775

Misc

received

Verb

12882

Misc

service

noun

29976

Misc

business

noun

34715

Misc

attractive

Adjective

4999

Misc and magazine

staff

Noun

22281

Misc and newspaper

information

Noun

37833

Misc then academic

press

Noun

12529

Misc then magazine 644 for press conference (newspaper)

attend

Verb

3497

Misc then newspaper

spotter

noun

32

Newspaper

Londoner

Proper noun

130

Newspaper

celebrates

verb

293

Newspaper

hurdle

Noun

559

Newspaper

terrorism

Noun

667

Newspaper

businessman;

noun

931

Newspaper

recruit

Noun

938

Newspaper

disappointing

Adjective

980

Newspaper

promising

Adjective

1492

Newspaper

spotted

Verb

1559

Newspaper

encounter

Noun

1648

Newspaper

nursery

Noun

1737

Newspaper

anniversary

noun

1995

Newspaper

talent

Noun

2003

Newspaper

candidate

Noun

3742

Newspaper

Faced

verb

4355

Newspaper

threat

Noun

5490

Newspaper

latest

Noun

6277

Newspaper

proved

Verb

6725

Newspaper

senior

Adjective

8115

Newspaper

officers

Noun

8557

Newspaper

officer

Noun

8871

Newspaper

trust

Noun

9909

Newspaper

international

Adjective

21689

Newspaper

City

noun

22393

Newspaper

British

Noun

34984

Newspaper

interview

Noun

4522

Newspaper (just, then academic and magazine)

affair

noun

3073

Newspaper then fiction

crowd

Noun

4114

Newspaper then fiction

dangerous

Adjective

5576

Newspaper then fiction

drive

Noun

8548

Newspaper then fiction

limelight

Noun

208

Newspaper then magazine

serving

Verb

2716

Newspaper then misc

bluestockings3

noun

2

Newspaper then misc – bluestocking 6 – 4 fiction, 2 misc

vetting

verb

108

newspapers

clandestine

Adjective

175

Non-academic

popularly

Adverb

243

Non-academic

minorities

Noun

889

Non-academic

favoured

Adjective

1937

Non-academic

ethnic

Adjective

2238

Non-academic

attracted

verb

2772

Non-academic

intelligence

Noun

3344

Non-academic

Cambridge

Proper noun

3574

Non-academic

china

noun

5207

Non-academic

net

Noun

6554

Non-academic

official

adjective

9335

Non-academic

conference

Noun

9630

Non-academic

military

Adjective

10924

Non-academic

foreign

Adjective

15399

Non-academic

university

Noun

16197

Non-academic

personal

Adjective

17122

Non-academic

problem-solvers

Noun

6

Non-academic – 44 for ‘problem solver’misc, 8 for problem solvers’ misc.

following

Preposition

26046

Non-academic then misc

forties

Noun (plural)

502

Spoken then fiction

Colleagues

Noun

5359

Spoken then newspaper

spend

Verb

7720

Spoken then newspaper

 

 Tier 2 words in order of word class

 

Tier 2 Word

Type of word – in context

British National Corpus Frequency

Largest context

international

Adjective

21689

Newspaper

personal

Adjective

17122

Non-academic

recent

Adjective

15472

Magazine

foreign

Adjective

15399

Non-academic

modern

adjective

12823

Academic then magazine

potential

adjective

11020

Academic

military

Adjective

10924

Non-academic

successful

Adjective

10556

Misc

official

adjective

9335

Non-academic

senior

Adjective

8115

Newspaper

dangerous

Adjective

5576

Newspaper then fiction

attractive

Adjective

4999

Misc and magazine

typical

Adjective

4737

Academic

rare

Adjective

4521

Magazine

conventional

Adjective

3829

Academic

gentle

adjective

2736

Fiction

ethnic

Adjective

2238

Non-academic

satisfactory

Adjective

2151

Academic

curious

adjective

2077

Fiction

educated

Adjective

1968

Misc

favoured

Adjective

1937

Non-academic

subtle

Adjective

1752

Magazine

smart

Adjective

1711

Magazine then fiction

elegant

Adjective

1706

Magazine then fiction

promising

Adjective

1492

Newspaper

disappointing

Adjective

980

Newspaper

Motivated

Adjective

941

Academic

paramount

adjective

592

Academic

online

adjective

567

Misc

stylish

Adjective

481

Magazine

crumpled

Adjective

379

Fiction

clandestine

Adjective

175

Non-academic

oak-panelled

Adjective

20

Fiction

softly-spoken

adjective

7

Magazine.  30 ‘softly spoken’ 17 of which are fiction

Per cent

Adverb

37272

(had to use collocate as 2 word so don’t have genre – 2889 Spoken for percent one word

increasingly

adverb

6494

Academic

Occasionally

Adverb

3823

Magazine

initially

Adverb

3766

Academic

popularly

Adverb

243

Non-academic

Psst!

Interjection

20

Fiction

information

Noun

37833

Misc then academic

state

Noun

37759

Academic

British

Noun

34984

Newspaper

business

noun

34715

Misc

form

Noun

33790

Academic

service

noun

29976

Misc

City

noun

22393

Newspaper

staff

Noun

22281

Misc and newspaper

process

noun

22227

Academic

study

Noun

21763

Academic

university

Noun

16197

Non-academic

press

Noun

12529

Misc then magazine 644 for press conference (newspaper)

term

Noun

12223

Academic

demand

Noun

10775

Misc

concern

Noun

10120

Academic

college

Noun

10093

Misc

trust

Noun

9909

Newspaper

application

noun

9787

Academic

degree

Noun

9769

Academic

conference

Noun

9630

Non-academic

officer

Noun

8871

Newspaper

officers

Noun

8557

Newspaper

drive

Noun

8548

Newspaper then fiction

culture

Noun

8413

Academic

presence

noun

7770

Academic

text

Noun

6865

Academic

assessment

Noun

6668

Academic

target

Noun

6607

Misc

net

Noun

6554

Non-academic

article

Noun

6501

Academic

latest

Noun

6277

Newspaper

selection

Noun

5914

Magazine

relationships

Noun

5879

Academic

threat

Noun

5490

Newspaper

Colleagues

Noun

5359

Spoken then newspaper

china

noun

5207

Non-academic

suit

Noun

4767

Fiction

interview

Noun